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3.2 Elements from the Sea
Oxidation and Reduction
Loss of electrons Gain of electrons
Gain of O 2 Loss of O2
Increase in oxidation state Decrease in oxidation state
Redox reactions have both an oxidation and a reduction taking place.
Oxidising agents are reduced.
Reducing agents are oxidised.
Oxidation states are useful for:
Naming inorganic compounds e.g. Copper(ll) Oxide
Showing which component of the reaction is oxidised or reduced
Identifying the oxidising and reducing agents
Balancing equations for both charge and amount of substances
Only used for elements with variable oxidation states e.g. nitrogen, sulphur & transition
Numerals come after the element they refer to
There is no space between the name and the numeral
An oxyanion is a negative ion with oxygen in. The mane always ends in ate to show that oxygen is
present. Oxyanions need to have some indication of oxidation state of the element other than
Stoichiometric equations (balanced) should be found by balancing the oxidation states and the
amount of electrons gained and lost. When they are equal on each side the equation is balanced
as the same number of electrons would be gained as would be lost.