2.9 Developing Fuels

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2.9 Developing Fuels
Structural and E/Z isomerisation
Structural isomers ­ same molecular formula but different structural formulae
Chain isomerism ­ When there are four or more carbons in a chain more branched isomers are
possible
Position isomerisation ­ when there is an atom or a functional group substituted in a carbon ring
or chain e.g.
Functional group isomerism ­ compounds with the same molecular formula have different
functional groups and therefore belong to different homologous series e.g.
Stereoisomerism
Stereoisomerism ­ molecules with the same formula but different arrangements in space
E/Z isomerism or cis/trans isomerism ­ molecules have identical molecular formulae but with
different arrangements of atoms, for this to be relevant there needs to be two different groups of
atoms on each carbon around the double bond
Double bonds mean that the molecule cannot twist so the E/Z isomerisation is important. The
bonds hold the shape of the molecule around the double bond and give extra strength and
support.

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General rules for naming alkanes, haloalkanes & alcohols
a) Count the carbon atoms in the longest chain
b) Use alkyl group prefixes to indicate chains
c) Use chloro bromo iodo to indicate a substituted halogen
d) Add suffixes to indicate other functional groups e.g. ­ol for alcohols
e) Indicate the number of the carbons with branches/functional groups and keep these
numbers as low as possible
f) Prefixes listed alphabetically
g) NO SPACES (numbers separated by commas e.g. 2,2 and from words by hyphens e.g.…read more

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