2.4.2 Lung Disease

OCR specifiaction based notes for AS Human Biology

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2.4.2 Lung Disease
(a) Chronic or Acute
Chronic- Chronic diseases often start slowly but they last for a long time, they are rarely
curable. e.g. diabetes
Acute- Acute diseases only happen for a short time and then the person gets better.
e.g. acute bronchitis
(b) Effects of Smoking
Chronic Bronchitis, Emphysema, COPD, Lung Cancer are the more common effects of
smoking. Also, the carbon monoxide in the smoke prevents red blood cells from carrying
O2 to produce carboxyhaemoglobin. A cough is also likely to develop due to larger volumes
of mucus present in the lungs.
(c) Asthma
Most asthma attacks are caused by allergens such as pet fur, pollen and dust mites. Other
causes could be intrinsic, exercise induced, nocturnal and occupational. The symptoms can
include wheezing and difficulty breathing. it can be treated with steroids in an inhaler
which reduce inflammation. Beta antagonists can also be used. They relax the airway


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