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2.3.2 Acquiring Immunity

(a) Vaccines
A vaccine is a preparation which is used to improve immunity to a particular disease.

(b) UK Vaccination Programme

When to immunise Diseases to protect against Vaccine given

2 months Diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, polio, HIB, DTaP/IPV/Hib
pneumococcal infection PCV

3 months Diphtheria, tetanus, whooping…

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mechanisms of the body include:
Skin Forms a continuous layer/barrier, preventing entry of microbes
Continued loss of skin carries microbes away from body surface
If skin becomes damaged, scar formation occurs, preventing entry of microbes
Tears Contain the enzyme lysozyme, which hydrolyses bacterial cell walls
Wash away microbes from surface…

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Specific Immune Response

Type of white Example Cell Maturatio Cell Function
blood cell Cell Origin n Site

Monocyte Bone Blood Phagocytosis & aiding in generating the
Phagocytes Marrow Stream specific immune responses by antigen
presentation

Macrophag Bone Organ Phagocytosis & aiding in generating the
e Marrow Tissue specific immune responses…

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Artificial immunity ­ immunity can be induced by a vaccine that contains the antigens of a
given pathogen or by exposure to another persons` antibodies. Injections of a vaccine
containing antigens generally produce life-long immunity to the pathogen whereas
injection or exposure to another persons` antibodies provides short lived immunity.…

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(j) Blood Groups














(k) HIV Vaccine
The virus replicates so quickly and makes so many mistakes during the process that
vaccines can't possibly fend off all the types of HIV that exist. HIV also has developed
sophisticated mechanisms to dodge immune attack, shrouding its surface protein in sugars
to hide…

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