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2.3 Developing fuels

Fractional Distillation






Fractional distillation is a continuous process that separates the different lengths of hydrocarbons
in crude oil, using their differing volatility. The crude oil is vaporised and travels up the column. It
is separated into fractions that each has a specific boiling point range.

Organic Chemistry…

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Alkanes Saturated hydrocarbons with a general e.g. Butane
formula of C
nH2n+2 which means they are all

members of a homologous series




Alkenes Unsaturated hydrocarbons with at least one e.g. Ethene
double C=C bond. They have the general

formula Cn
H2n
.






Cycloalkanes Saturated hydrocarbons with a general e.g cyclohexane…

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The Saturated Hydrocarbons, or Alkanes
Melting Boiling State at
Molecular
Point Point
25oC
Formula
Name
(o C)
(o C)
methane CH 4 183 164 gas
ethane C2 H 6 183 89
propane C3H 8 190 42
butane C4 H 10 138 0.5
pentane
C5
H12 130 36
hexane C
6…

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