2.3 Developing Fuels

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2.3 Developing fuels
Fractional Distillation
Fractional distillation is a continuous process that separates the different lengths of hydrocarbons
in crude oil, using their differing volatility. The crude oil is vaporised and travels up the column. It
is separated into fractions that each has a specific boiling point range.
Organic Chemistry
Organic chemicals contain
carbon, which is often
found in living things.
Carbon is good at forming a
diverse range of chemical
compounds as it has four
electrons in its outer shell
which is too many to lose
or gain in order to bond
ironically. Instead carbon
forms four covalent bonds.
It can form bonds in chains
or in rings, which is called

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Alkanes Saturated hydrocarbons with a general e.g. Butane
formula of C
nH2n+2 which means they are all
members of a homologous series
Alkenes Unsaturated hydrocarbons with at least one e.g. Ethene
double C=C bond. They have the general
formula Cn
Cycloalkanes Saturated hydrocarbons with a general e.g cyclohexane etc.
formula C
nH2n the same as alkenes. They
are all connected in a ring shape.
Arene/Aromati Compounds that contain one or more e.g.…read more

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The Saturated Hydrocarbons, or Alkanes
Melting Boiling State at
Point Point
(o C)
(o C)
methane CH 4 183 164 gas
ethane C2 H 6 183 89
propane C3H 8 190 42
butane C4 H 10 138 0.…read more


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