2.11 Developing Fuels

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2.11 Developing Fuels
Biofuels ­ alternative fuels derived from renewable materials
Ethanol
Can be made by fermentation of carbohydrate crops (e.g. sugar cane)
Too volatile to be the sole fuel source
Up to 15% used
Said to be carbon neutral as plant CO2
intake = CO2
produced in combustion
Extra energy used to produce and distribute
Uses a lot of land that could be used for food production
Biodiesel
Made by reacting fats and oil w/ alcohol to produce fatty acid esters in transesterification
Can be made from waste oil
Carbon neutral (except production & distribution energy)
Some cars can use it pure, most need a mixture
Biodegradable
Contains virtually no sulphur
Produces less particulates
May produce more nitrogen oxides
E.g. green diesel & biogas
Hydrogen
2H2(g) + O
2(g) 2H2O(g)
Advantages Disadvantages
Renewable as made from electrolysis of Production depends on electricity
water Less energy dense than petrol
Can be stored and sent down pipes Oxides of nitrogen still produced
Can be used in fuel calls for electricity
generation or in combustion engines
Produces no CO, C
xHy or CO
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