2004 Indian and 2011 Japanese Tsunami

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  • Created on: 29-03-16 16:29
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2004 Indian (Boxing Day) Tsunami 26th Dec
2011 Japanese Tsunami 11th Mar
Magnitude 9.2 Mw 3rd largest recorded since 1990 9.0 Mw 4th largest since 1990 2 days of tremors peaking 7.2
Epicentre 160km off Sumatra coast 30km off shore from Tohoku
Focus Depth 30km for both shallow focus, large amounts of energy, both subduction zones, gap theory between earthquakes
Plates Subduction of IndoAustralian under Burma Plate Subduction of Pacific plate under Eurasian plate at the Japan
Caused 1500km of sea bed to rise by 15m trench
Max. wave height 30m at Sumatra 40m at Miyako
Deaths Over 238 000 in 14 countries over 80% were women 15 889 65% over 60 (ageing population densely populated)
(housewives, looking after children, couldn't swim, long
clothing, men at sea)
Injured 125 000 6000
Large tourism area live near beach, don't know dangers
Damage Loss of infrastructure Over 1 million buildings damaged / destroyed
1500 villages in Northern Sumatra destroyed 2000 roads, 56 bridges and 26 railways damaged
Meltdown of Fukashima nuclear power plant
Ria coastline jagged with inlets, waves were concentrated up
rivers and bays
Economic Impacts $10 billion $135 billion most costly in history
51 000 fishing crafts lost in Sri Lanka dependent on fishing o Larger damage area
industry 250 000 people employed o More expensive buildings
Future loss of tourism too scared to return e.g. Maldives o Manufacturing, infrastructure and decommissioning power
55% drop in tourism plant
Environmental Damage to structure and biodiversity of wetlands, corals 5 million tons of debris washed out, 30% dispersed globally
Impacts and sand dunes 95% of vegetation destroyed
Agricultural land covered in salt layer soil becomes Reclaimed land suffered liquefaction
infertile Radioactive sea water from Fukashima
Pollution from waste and industrial chemicals o Gov. said not a problem and not to evacuate
Mangroves and coral reefs create friction and slowed water o Leaked radiation over 30x more than legal limit
down. Mangroves were removed for tourism and remaining o 2 million people in exclusion zone = birthing defects and
destroyed from tsunami not protected next time animal mutations
o Spread across to Canada and USA within a week

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International $14 billion External aid, NGOs $14 billion plus $183 billion from bank of Japan
Response Low tech management mangroves replanted and Rebuild infrastructure and buildings
education in schools 170 000 people moved to temporary housing shipping
Warning Systems / No warning system in place. 12m high coastal wall only 40% of coast covered waves 30m
Protection Warning and migration system 2005 track tsunamis using high
earthquake info (buoys with detectors), inform people Warning text alerts and updates.…read more


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