1a. Fit and Healthy OCR Gateway B1

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Fitness and Health
Measuring Blood Pressure
Systolic: Higher measurement, when heart beats and pushes blood through arteries.
Diastolic: Lower measurement, when the heart rests between beats.
Units = mmHg (millimetres of mercury). Young, fit person = 120 over 70.
Factors that Increase Blood Pressure: Being overweight, Stress, High alcohol intake,
Smoking
Factors That Decrease Blood Pressure: Regular exercise, Balanced diet
Consequences of High: Kidney damage, Burst blood vessels, Damage to the brain, including
strokes
Consequences of Low: Dizziness, Fainting, Poor blood circulation
Fitness and Health
Fitness = ability to carry out physical activity; Health = free from disease
Measuring Fitness
Strength, stamina, flexibility, agility, speed and cardiovascular efficiency (recovery time)
Smoking + Diet
Smoking increases blood pressure:
Carbon monoxide combines irreversibly with haemoglobin in the blood, reducing its
oxygen-carrying capacity, and heart rate increases to compensate.
Nicotine increases the heart rate
Diet - increase risk of heart disease:
Saturated fats - build-up cholesterol (a plaque) in arteries; Salt elevates blood pressure.
Heart Attacks
Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart muscles. Become blocked = a heart attack.
1. Fatty deposits (plaques) build up in the coronary arteries
2. A thrombosis (blood clot) form on fatty deposit
3. The thrombosis blocks coronary artery
4. Some heart muscle cells do not get the oxygen and nutrients they need
5. These cells start to die
Narrowed coronary arteries + thrombosis = increased risk of heart attack.

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