First 267 words of the document:
Communication is giving facts, opinions or ideas. It can be through talking reading or writing.
Communication transmits a message:
A message B
Sender message receiver
The `Railway Model' shows the basics of communication.
Limitations: This model implies that the sender is more important than the receiver. It doesn't
consider the `meaning' of the message, and different interpretations of it.
The Laswell Model
The earliest model of communication was by HAROLD LASWELL in 1948:
Who? A sender
Says what? Directs a message
To whom? A receiver
In what medium? Through a form
And with what effect? With some effect
The model clarifies areas of investigation which we recognize as the sender, message, the
receiver, the medium (and channel) and the outcome.
Channel and Medium
Channel a physical connection between communicators, a route.
Medium a way of communicating, a means
Truman Show: sender Jim Carey/ the producers
message outiline of the movie
receiver mass public
form pictorial/image and text
effect make you want to buy and watch it.
The Italian Job: it is a more diverse film and so it is harder for the Laswell Model to work. Kane
is a cultural icon and the film is a classic and it confuses the Model because the meaning isn't
clear; there are lots of messages that come out of the same text so it is harder to break it
down into separate components.
Problems with the Laswell Model