15 Core studies

All As unit 2 psychology Core studies

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  • Created on: 10-05-12 11:51
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Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961) Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive
Aim: To see if children imitate modelled aggression in a new setting, and to investigate sex differences
based on the principals of social learning theory. Four main hypotheses:
1. Children exposed to an adult behaving aggressively towards a toy will imitate this behaviour in the
absence of the model.
2. Children exposed to a non-aggressive model will show less aggressive behaviour.
3. Children will imitate same-sex models more than opposite-sex models.
4. Boys may be more predisposed to imitate aggressive models than girls.
72 children between 37 and 69 months old
All attended the nursery at Stanford University
Equal numbers of boys and girls
Laboratory experiment
Children were either exposed to the same-sex aggressive model, an opposite-sex aggressive model, a
same sex-non aggressive model, an opposite sex non-aggressive model or not exposed to adult
This gives three independent variables: the sex of the child, the sex of the model and the behaviour of
the model.
The children were matched on the basis of their pre-existing levels of aggression, which was rated on
five-point scales by the experimenter and a nursery school teacher before the experiment began.
The dependent variable is the behaviour of the children and this was measured at stage 3 of the
The experiment took place in three stages:
1. Children exposed to adult model (individually). In the aggressive condition the model acted out a
series of pre-planned aggressive acts towards the Bobo doll. In the non-aggressive condition the
model played quietly.
2. Mild aggression arousal where children were briefly shown some attractive toys and then told that
they weren't allowed to play with them.
3. Observation of delayed imitation-lasted 20 minutes while child was in room containing aggressive
and non-aggressive toys and a Bobo doll. Observers watched through a one way mirror and three
measures of imitation were obtained:
Imitative physical aggression
Imitative verbal aggression
Imitative non-aggressive verbal responses (Non-imitative physical and verbal aggression was
also noted.)
Children in the aggressive condition reproduced (imitated) a lot of the physical and verbal
aggression used by the model, whereas children in the non-aggressive and control conditions
showed virtually none of this behaviour.
Children in the aggressive condition also copied the model's non-aggressive verbal responses and
none of the children in the other condition did.
Children were more likely to imitate the same-sex model rather than the opposite-sex model.
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The children were shocked and surprised at the female model displayed physical and verbal
aggression.…read more

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Aim: The aim of the study was to provide more support for the cognitive explanation of autism; that autistic
adults lack theory of mind skills. The theory of mind test used in this study in the Eyes Test, in which people
have to choose the best word to describe the emotion displayed in a photograph of a person's eyes.
Three groups
16 participants
13 male, three female
Four with high ­ functioning autism and 12 with Asperger's syndrome
Mean IQ of 105.…read more

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Group 1 were significantly more likely to make errors on the Strange Stories task than the other two
No difference between the groups on the Gender Recognition or Basic Emotion task.
Females in the `normal group performed significantly better than males on the Eyes Task.
The lack of theory of mind is a core deficit in autistic spectrum disorders.…read more

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Dement and Kleitman: The relation of eye movements during sleep to dream activity
Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between eye movement and dreaming. There
were three specific research questions:
1. Are dreams recalled more often during REM sleep than during non-REM sleep?
2. Would subjective estimates of dream length correlate with length of REM?
3.…read more

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Woken Woken
after 5 after 15
minutes minutes
of REM of REM
Correct Incorrect Correct Incorrect
45 6 47 13
The results show that participants were mostly correct in their estimation of dream length.
Research Question3
Initially, the researchers asked the participants to try and describe the directions they had looked during
their dreams.
As with Research question2, this proved too complex and the researchers simplified the procedure.…read more

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Freud (1909): Analysis of a phobia in a five-year old boy
Aim: In specific terms this study investigates the causes of a phobia of horses in a five-year old boy. More
generally it is a detailed account of the development of one child and allowed Freud to test his theory of
infantile sexuality, the Oedipus complex and the use of psychoanalytic theory in general.( To provide support
for Freud's psychoanalytic theory of development and his theory explaining phobias.…read more

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Fantasy about giraffes Evidence for Oedipus complex (fantasy of taking
mother away from father)
Fantasy about being his own father Evidence for Oedipus complex (desire to replace
father in mother's affection) and start of resolution
of Oedipus complex
Fantasy about plumber giving him `a bigger widdler Wanting to be like his father (evidence for possible
and a bigger behind' resolution of Oedipus complex)
Until the analysis of Little Hans, Freud could only deduce the existence of infant sexuality and the oedipal
complex from the…read more

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Griffiths (1994) the roles of cognitive bias and skill in fruit machine gambling
Aim: To consider whether gamblers are actually more skilful or whether their behaviour is better
characterised by certain cognitive distortions.
1. RGs and NRGs same on objective measures of skills
2. RGs produce more irrational verbalisation
3. RGs more skill oriented on subjective measures of skill
4. Thinking aloud participants take longer to complete the task.…read more

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60 participants
Mean age 23 years and four months
30 regular gamblers (29 male and one female)
30 non-regular gamblers (15 male and 15 females)
Volunteer sample
Recruited mainly via poster
Fully informed consent
IV- regular/non regular gamblers
Variety of DVs
`Subjective' (qualitative) DVs-cognitive ability (measured by thinking aloud techniques) and perception of
skills (measured by post-experiment interview)
`Objective' (quantitative DVs:
1. Total number of plays
2. Total minutes of play
3. Play rate (plays per minute)
4.…read more


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