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Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961) Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive

Aim: To see if children imitate modelled aggression in a new setting, and to investigate sex differences
based on the principals of social learning theory. Four main hypotheses:

1. Children exposed to an adult behaving aggressively towards…

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The children were shocked and surprised at the female model displayed physical and verbal


Controlled experiment able to establish cause and effect
High in reliability
Able to replicate
Both qualitative and quantitative data collected

Not very representative due to the sample being of middle-class kids from one…

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Aim: The aim of the study was to provide more support for the cognitive explanation of autism; that autistic
adults lack theory of mind skills. The theory of mind test used in this study in the Eyes Test, in which people
have to choose the best word to describe the…

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Group 1 were significantly more likely to make errors on the Strange Stories task than the other two
No difference between the groups on the Gender Recognition or Basic Emotion task.
Females in the `normal group performed significantly better than males on the Eyes Task.


The lack of…

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Dement and Kleitman: The relation of eye movements during sleep to dream activity

Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between eye movement and dreaming. There
were three specific research questions:

1. Are dreams recalled more often during REM sleep than during non-REM sleep?
2. Would…

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51 tests 60 tests

Woken Woken
after 5 after 15
minutes minutes
of REM of REM
Correct Incorrect Correct Incorrect
45 6 47 13
The results show that participants were mostly correct in their estimation of dream length.

Research Question3

Initially, the researchers asked the participants to try and describe…

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Freud (1909): Analysis of a phobia in a five-year old boy

Aim: In specific terms this study investigates the causes of a phobia of horses in a five-year old boy. More
generally it is a detailed account of the development of one child and allowed Freud to test his theory…

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Fantasy about giraffes Evidence for Oedipus complex (fantasy of taking
mother away from father)
Fantasy about being his own father Evidence for Oedipus complex (desire to replace
father in mother's affection) and start of resolution
of Oedipus complex
Fantasy about plumber giving him `a bigger widdler Wanting to be like…

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Griffiths (1994) the roles of cognitive bias and skill in fruit machine gambling

Aim: To consider whether gamblers are actually more skilful or whether their behaviour is better
characterised by certain cognitive distortions.


1. RGs and NRGs same on objective measures of skills
2. RGs produce more irrational verbalisation…

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60 participants
Mean age 23 years and four months
30 regular gamblers (29 male and one female)
30 non-regular gamblers (15 male and 15 females)
Volunteer sample
Recruited mainly via poster
Fully informed consent


IV- regular/non regular gamblers
Variety of DVs
`Subjective' (qualitative) DVs-cognitive ability (measured by…


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