1.3 Bonding - AS AQA CHM1

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  • Created on: 23-04-15 16:37
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1.3 Bonding
· electrostatic
attraction
between
Ionic
bonding
oppositely
charged
ions
· the
sharing
of
electrons
between
atoms
Covalent
bonding
of
the
similar
electronegativity
· covalent
bond
where
both
electrons
Dative
covalent
come
from
the
same
atom
· attraction
between
lattice
of
positve
Metallic
bonding
metal
ions
and
delocalised
outer
shell
electrons.
· power
of
an
atom
to
withdraw
electron
Electronegativity
density
from
a
covalent
bond
· where
the
shared
pairs
of
electrons
are
Polar
bond
unequally
distributed
in
the
bond
· a
molecule
with
inequal
distribution
of
Dipole
charge
Trends in Electronegativity
3.
Shielding
remains
the
2.
Nuclear
same
charge
because
increases
electrons
1.
Atomic
added
to
radii
same
shell
decreases
1.
Atomic
radii
increases
2.
Shielding
increases
3.
Distance
between
nucleus
&
4.
Less
attraction
outermost
between
+ve
increases
nucleus
and
shared
's
in
covalent
bond

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Intermolecular forces
· found
between
molecules
with
Dipole-Dipole
permanent
dipole
·exist
between
all
molecules/atoms
due
to
movement
of
electrons.
·Size
of
force
increasis
with
strength/Mr/Ar
because
there
are
more
Van
der
Waals
electrons.
·(in
organic
molecules
the
longer
the
chain,
the
stronger
the
vdW.
Straight
chains
have
higher
vdW
than
branched
due
to
less
packing.
Hydrogen
bonding
· 1.
A
+
H
atom
bonded
to...
· 2.
a
highly
electronegative
atom
(F,
O,
N)...
-
must
have:
· 3.
which
has
a
lone
pair.…read more

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Molecules with lone pairs
Molecule Name of Bond angles/shape
shape
NH3 Trigonal
pyramidal
H2O V-shaped
SF4 See-saw
ClF3 T-shape
XeF4 Square planar
BrF5 Square based
pyramid…read more

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States of Matter
IONIC e.g. NaCl
Property Explanation
Tm & Tb High Strong electrostatic
attractions between
the positive and
negative ions. Lots of
heat energy required.
Electrical conductivity Not when solid Ions in fixed positions
­ not free to move
Strength Brittle The ion layers shift
and the like charges
repel and shatter the
structure
Solubility Most are however Water molecules form
some aren't hydrogen bonds with ­
ve ions
METALLIC e.g. Sodium
Property Explanation
Tm & Tb High Strong metallic bond.…read more

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GIANT COVALENT e.g. diamond (hexagonal structure)
Property Explanation
Tm & Tb Very high Many very strong
carbon-carbon bonds
­ a lot of heat energy
required to break
Electrical conductivity No No free electrons to
carry charge
Strength Very hard Need to break many
very strong covalent
bonds
Solubility Insoluble Can't form hydrogen
bonds with water
e.g.…read more

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SIMPLE MOLECULAR e.g. Iodine
Property Explanation
Tm & Tb Low Intermolecular forces
of attraction are weal
(vdW)
Electrical conductivity No No free electrons to
carry charge
Strength Weak Bonding ­ vdW
forces
Solubility Insoluble Packing ­ not easy to
form hydrogen
bonds.
e.g. Ice
H-bonds stronger
than vdW's
therefore Tb
higher than
expected for H2O
Less dense than
H2O as
molecules in ice
are held further apart than in liquid H2O creating more
space in the structure as the molecules are held by
hydrogen bonds.…read more

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