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Page 1

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1.3 Bonding
· electrostatic
attraction
between

Ionic
bonding
oppositely
charged
ions

· the
sharing
of
electrons
between
atoms

Covalent
bonding
of
the
similar
electronegativity

· covalent
bond
where
both
electrons

Dative
covalent
come
from
the
same
atom

· attraction
between
lattice
of
positve

Metallic
bonding
metal
ions
and
delocalised
outer…

Page 2

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Intermolecular forces

· found
between
molecules
with

Dipole-Dipole
permanent
dipole

·exist
between
all
molecules/atoms
due
to
movement
of
electrons.

·Size
of
force
increasis
with
strength/Mr/Ar
because
there
are
more

Van
der
Waals
electrons.

·(in
organic
molecules
the
longer
the
chain,
the
stronger
the
vdW.

Straight
chains
have
higher
vdW
than…

Page 3

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Molecules with lone pairs
Molecule Name of Bond angles/shape
shape
NH3 Trigonal
pyramidal



H2O V-shaped




SF4 See-saw




ClF3 T-shape




XeF4 Square planar



BrF5 Square based
pyramid

Page 4

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States of Matter
IONIC e.g. NaCl
Property Explanation
Tm & Tb High Strong electrostatic
attractions between
the positive and
negative ions. Lots of
heat energy required.


Electrical conductivity Not when solid Ions in fixed positions
­ not free to move

Strength Brittle The ion layers shift
and the like charges…

Page 5

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GIANT COVALENT e.g. diamond (hexagonal structure)
Property Explanation
Tm & Tb Very high Many very strong
carbon-carbon bonds
­ a lot of heat energy
required to break

Electrical conductivity No No free electrons to
carry charge
Strength Very hard Need to break many
very strong covalent
bonds
Solubility Insoluble Can't…

Page 6

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SIMPLE MOLECULAR e.g. Iodine
Property Explanation
Tm & Tb Low Intermolecular forces
of attraction are weal
(vdW)


Electrical conductivity No No free electrons to
carry charge
Strength Weak Bonding ­ vdW
forces

Solubility Insoluble Packing ­ not easy to
form hydrogen
bonds.
e.g. Ice

H-bonds stronger
than vdW's
therefore Tb…

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