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1.2.3 The Lungs and Investigating Lung Function

(a) Tissues and Organs
A tissue is a group of similar cells specialised to carry out the same function.
An organ is a structure made up of different kinds of tissue.

(b) Relationships Between Cells
Epithelial tissue is arranged in single or multi-layered…

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(e) Surface to Area Ratio

(f) Gas Exchange Surface
Large Surface Area
The bronchioles are branched
Millions of alveoli in each lung
The alveoli are folded
Thin Surface Area
The squamous cells are very thin
Capillary walls are only one cell thick
Steep Diffusion Gradient
The blood circulation carries oxygenated…

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(i) Spirometer

(j) Causes of Respiratory Arrest
respiratory disorder such as asthma
An obstruction in the trachea or bronchi such as food or a small object
Overdosing on drugs that suppress the respiratory system
Respiratory arrest may also occur following cardiac arrest.

(k) First Aid
Roll onto back, lift…


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