1.1.4 Blood for Medical Use

OCR specifiaction based notes for AS Human Biology

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1.1.4 Blood For Medical Use
(a) Storing Blood
Storing donated blood properly is extremely important to ensure that the blood is safe for
Keep in plastic bags
Screen for conditions such as HIV
Keep at 4oC- do not freeze it as blood cells would burst due to the crystals that will
form in the membranes. But it much neither be at room temperature as the
reactions need to be reduced such as clotting
Remove calcium ions by adding sodium citrate to prevent clotting due to the lack of
Use a buffer solution to preserve the enzymes so that they can reactivate in the
(b) Enzyme Activity
As you increase temperature you increase enzyme and substrate kinetic energy, resulting
in more successful collisions between enzymes and substrates- therefore more enzyme
substrate complexes result at a greater rate. That is until the optimum temperature is
reached. Here, the enzymes begin to denature. This is because the particles vibrate more
violently and cause the hydrogen bonds in the enzymes to break making the shape change.
(c) Co-Factors
Calcium ions are enzyme cofactors in the blood clotting process and are required for
platelet plug formation, the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin and the conversion of
fibrinogen to fibrin.
(d) Blood Products
There are a number of different blood products;
Whole blood
Packed red cells
Clotting factors

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(e) Uses of Blood Products
Type of Blood Uses
Whole Blood Contains everything in blood- erythrocytes, leucocytes, platelets and plasma. Used in
cases of severe blood loss.
Leucodeplete This has as many leucocytes removed as possible to help prevent problems with
d antibodies in later transfusions.
Packed red The cells are diluted with a salt and sugar solution. This is used for people with anemia
cells or blood loss after surgery.
Platelets Can be used for bone marrow failure. Also after chemo.…read more


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