• Emancipation in 1865, 13th Amendment
  • 14th Amendment, equal protection under the law.
  • 15th Amendment, forbade denial of the vote.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1866 said all races are full citizens of the U.S.
  • Radical Republicans thought the American Dream should apply to blacks too
  • Military occupation of the South
  • 1870s - 22 blacks were elected to congress; 20 to House of Representatives and 2 to the Senate.
  • Freedman's Bureau, set up in 1865 to support freed slaves and provide security. Trained lawyers, teachers etc. Financial and educational aid.
  • 700,000 enrolled to vote.


  • Deeply embedded racism in the South.
  • Economic weakness.
  • Johnson issued pardons to rebels in the South who then re-asserted authority.
  • Black codes.
  • Sharecropping.
  • The KKK.
  • Lacked support in political positions.
  • Homeless and unemployed.
  • Lack of equality in education.
  • Bureau closed in 72, North losing enthusiasm.
  • Employment discouraged as might threaten white employment.
  • Emigration to the North was difficult.
  • Fear of violence.
  • Slaughterhouse Case = supreme court decided that citizens should stay under state control rather than federal control, 1873.


Although blacks received their freedom from slavery, there wasn't any support for them afterwards. With employers unwilling to employ them, they ended up going back to farms who exploited them for their cheap labour - the blacks could do nothing about this with their lack of education on political and economic factors. Not enough was done for blacks and these years became those frightened of violence from the white Southerners.




Wonderful stuff!