Indirect Realism Overview

  • Created by: Elena.S
  • Created on: 16-04-17 16:42

Indirect Realism Overview


  • P: intuitive; E: easily recognisable that there's a gap between external world + perception; E: sunlight takes eight mins to reach Earth
  • P: defence of nature of external world; E: if more than one sense indicates same conclusion, probably is correct; E: seeing and hearing something drop = probably did occur
  • P: defence of existence of external world; E: Locke - experience of sense data is involuntary so must be external + Russell - external world as best hypothesis, better/easier to assume external world > no world at all


  • P: scepticism about nature of external world; E: due to veil of perception we'll never have full objectivity about external world to check what it's actually like
  • P: scepticism about existence of external world;E: gap between perception and external world which sense data doesn't help with, possibility that world doesn't exist; E: Descartes' demon could feed sense data and we wouldn't know about it


Indirect realism survives criticisms and explains problems caused by direct realism 


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