Gaius Verres

  • Created by: Sunset
  • Created on: 28-03-14 11:30


How Does Cicero Emphasize his Greed?

  • Irresponsible -                                                                           1. 'nixus muliercula.' He is leaning on a prostitute, which shows that he deems things other than work more important emphasizing that he is irresponsible because he is in a role of great responsibility.                                                                  2. 'flagitiosissimum convivum' Whilst the fleet is sailing he has a most disgraceful banquet so he isn't focusing on his job.
  • Lazy-                                                                                         1. 'visus multis diebus non esset' He has not been seen for many days.
  • Evil-                                                                                           1. 'inflammatus scelere furore crudelitate' Inflamed with wickedness, madness and with cruelty. A very negative description. With the loss of the fleet, everyone looks to him and he is filled with an immensely nasty feeling - he wants to blame others.
  • Greedy - 1. 'pallio purpureo' He is wearing a purple cloak which is a very expensive colour: shows he is noble and an important governor. However, Cicero implies that he is squandering the fleets pay ('dismissionem propugnatorum atque remigum' the dismissal of it's fighting men and rowers.)
  • Since he himself was thought to be an ally of the pirates - suggests that he has colluded with the pirates for his own gain. Maybe in order to take money from the families of the captains. Further emphasized by 'it had happened entirely because of his own greed.
  • The innocent captains are locked up and their families aren't allowed to see them. Innocent men and innocent families are suffering; Verres is causing a chain of sufering all in the pursuit of money and to cover up his greed.

How Does Cicero Emphasize his Guilt?

What do the Other Charcater's Say about Verres?

  • 'hominibus miseris innocenibus' That man ordered chains to be thrown upon the wretched, innocent men, 'implorare...fidem praetoris' These men called upon the faith of the Praetor - Cicero emphasizes the captain's innocence because they do not know what they have done. Emphasis on their innocence highlights Verres' guilt.
  • 'populi' - shouting and wonder arose from the people. The 'people' are shocked by Verres' actions, boldness and shamefulness. The reactions of the crowd were important in Roman law courts so the response of the eople of Sicily will anger the people at the court - shows his guilt.
  • 'quinto decimo die' - this charge originated on the fifteenth day after the fleet was lost. It has taken him more than two weeks to make up a story.
  • Contrast of Verres' rejoicing ('gaudes') and the people's grief and fear ('ecquis fuit quin lacrimaret... perimculum commune' was there any man who did not cry... common danger) Court trust the reaction of the people, which makes Verres look guilty.
  • 'You were mistaken to a great extent when you thought that you were washing out the stains of your thefts and crimes with the blood of your innocent allies.' This suggests that Verres knows that he is guilty himself.
  • Cleomenes:                                                                                  1.  ' alterum se Verrem' He thought himself another Verres. Cleomenes' actions are a reflection on Verres as he looks up to Verres and copies him.                                                          2. 'istius hominis avarissimi' - that very greedy man's reasoning was found to be the same for the garrisons as for the fleets. The men have been dismissed so that Cleomenes, and likely as not Verres, can take their pay. 'istius' meaning that could also mean Verres.
  • Sextius: His actions reflect upon Verres because he is Verres' lictor, i.e. his employee. He does as Verres tells him to and it seems Verres has chosen a nasty man especially for the job. 2. Sextius extorts money from the families of the captains - does some of the money go to Verres?                                     3. 'corpora feris obicientur'  Sextius, and presumably also Verres, say they will throw the bodies to wild beasts unless the families pay. This is especially painful for the families as in Roman society a person needed proper burial rites to get to the underworld. It seems the men are going out of their way to hurt and extort from the families.


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