When the question asks 'Outline the results/conclusions of the study by Milgram' (for example), do you have to state all of the results?
- 1 vote
I'm studying OCR psychology. I'm a bit confused, for the results there is soo much for 6/8 marks, so im wondering if you have to write down all the results? or will this for Milgram get me the full marks - 'All 40 of the participants obeyed up to 300 volts at which point 5 refused to continue. Four more gave one further shock before refusing; two broke off at the 330 volts level and one each at 345, 360 and 375 volts. Therefore, a total of 14 participants defied the experimenter, and 26 obeyed. Overall, 65% of the participants gave shocks up to 450 volts (obeyed) and 35% stopped sometime before 450 volts' how long does the results/conclusions have to be to get the full marks?
THANKS IN ADVANCE! :)
- 2 votes
"Four more gave one further shock before refusing; two broke off at the 330 volts level and one each at 345, 360 and 375 volts"
I would leave out this bit and perhaps talk about the seizures. but then I did WJEC so don't know much about OCR. the way I did it was that findings took about 75% of my answer and conclusion was the other 25% in terms of length but that's only because there is more to write about the findings than the conclusion. you should try to write as much about the conclusions made by Milgram and if u have time, add on your own opinions although this may not be in the mark scheme, it helps the flow of your answer so the examiner find them easier to mark giving u higher grades
- 0 votes
Heres what I wrote :)
Milgram's study (1960s)
Milgram’s aim was to find out whether ordinary americans would obey an order that violated their personal morals from a figure of authority.
In order to do this 40 male volunteers were recruited through a newspaper advertisement. The participants were informed that the study was looking into the role of punishment in learning. Half played the role of the ‘teacher’, and half played the role of the ‘learner’. They were deceived into thinking that they were taking part in a learning and memory experiment. Every time that the 'learner' got a question wrong, the 'teacher' would give a shock. The experiment continued until 450 volts were given 4 times, or the participants refused to continue.
He fount that all participants continued to at least 300 volts; 65% of participants went to the end (450 volts); Most participants found the procedure stressful and wanted to stop. Many showed verbal distress and one even had a fit. However they continued to obey.
He concluded that people tend to obey those in authority.
The study was internally valid as it tested what it set out to test. Although the study was a lab experiment and therefore it can't be generalized and lacks ecological validity even though it is high in population validity as he used ordinary americans and his procedures have been replicated in many countries all over the world and have found similar levels of obedience.
Some may argue that there was harm to participants. Participants were very distressed and also they were deceived by Milgram into harming others. Although Milgram ended with questionnaires and 74% said they had learnt from the experience and all were debriefed and followed up for many years, no sign of psychological harm was found.