what are the steps to make ethyl ethanoate?
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what are the steps to make an ester?
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There are four steps, as long as you remember the order and roughly what they do you should be fine. Remember the common example to give is how to make ethyl ethanoate.
- Refluxing - The reaction
-To make ethyl ethanoate, react ethanol with ethanoic acid using a catalyst (usually concentrated sulphuric acid). Gently heat the mixture in a flask with a condenser which catches the vapours and recycles them back into the flask, giving them time to react.
-This seperates your ester from the unreacted alcohol, carboxylic acid, sulfuric acid and water. The mixture is heated below a fraction column, causing the vapour to rise. When the temperature at the rop reaches the boiling point of ethyl ethanoate, the liquid that flows out of the condenser is collected - impure ethyl ethanoate.
-The collected liquid is poured into a tap funnel - to remove impurities - it's shaken with sodium carbonate solution to remove acidic impurities. The mixture seperates into two layers and then the lower layer can be removed - repeated.
-Any remaining water in ethyl ethanoate can be removed by shaking it with lumps of anhydrous calcium chloride, which absorb the water. Finally the pure ethyl ethanoate can be seperated from the solid calcium chloride by filtration.