Unit 1 AS - Lungs and disease

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People with emphysema may find it difficult to climb stairs. Explain why. (3 marks)

Pulmonary tuberculosis is spread from one person to another by droplet infection. Explain how tuberculosis is spread by droplet infection. (2 marks)

Posted: 13-12-09 21:28 by Mike McNicholas

1)Emphysema developes over a number of years, and is virtually impossible to diagnose untull the lungs have been irreversibly damaged, healthy lungs contain large quantities of elastic tissue. This tissue stretched when we breath in and it springs back when we breath out. in emphysematous lings, the elastin has bcome permanently stretched and the lungs are no longer able to force all the air out of the alveoli, this makes climbing stairs difficult for someone who has this type of lung disease. The person with emphysema will experiance shortness of breath, this results in a lack of oxygenated blood getting to the right muscels in the body which inhibits the person climbing the staits as easily as someone with out the disease.

Posted: 13-12-09 22:31 by Adam Helstrip

2)The transmission of pulmonary TB is spread through the air by droplets, released in to the air when an infected individual coughs, sneezes, laughs or even talks. M. tuberculosis is a resistant bacterium and can survive for several weeks on a surface, once the droplets have dried. It usually takes close contact with an infected person over a long period of time for the transmission of pulmonary TB to take place.

Posted: 13-12-09 22:33 by Adam Helstrip

Another 1 million points to the fantastic Mr Helstrip for his contributions again. Can anyone touch him?

Posted: 14-12-09 23:59 by Mike McNicholas

People with emphysema find it difficult to climb stairs due to the surface area in the lungs being reduced and the alveoli stretching so much that they then remain stretched. This therefore stops the alveoli being able to force air out so the lungs become less efficient . Emphysema is a gradual disease that isn't diagnosed usuallly until the damage has been done. As the surface area of the alveoli is reduced, there is less oxygen in the blood to get round the body and the muscles so this too could cause some muscle cramps as lactic acid builds up which could making climbing stairs difficult as an oxygen debt has built up.

Tuberculosis is spread from one person to another through droplet infection when people are in close contact woth people who are infected with TB for example,families and overcrowded living/sleeping conditions. Also, people who work in places of long term care facilities like old peoples' homes, prison or hospitals, this is because large numbers of people lve together for a long period of time and closely together. People that are most susceptible to getting TB are those with a weakened immume system, for example, someone with Crohn's Disease and take steroids for the condition have a weakended immune system. There are also countries where TB is common such as South Africa.

Now the actual droplets are spread through air bourne droplets which are released into the air when people talk, laugh, sneeze and cough. These bacteria can then survive onsurfaces for several weeks, even after the droplet has dried up and this is because the bacterium, M. Tuberculosis is resistant and its is difficult to get rid off. (I've tried but I don't think this answer is better.)

Posted: 15-12-09 20:47 by Kerry Foulger

thats a very good reply :) i like where you have added examples, and where TB is common etc... ill remember to do that in future :) shows a bit o back ground reading xD

Posted: 15-12-09 23:41 by Adam Helstrip

Adam you are using the forum exactly as is should be used. Well done fella.

The A2 lot are really in the swing now and you are on the same level as them. Good man, that man.

Posted: 16-12-09 01:06 by Mike McNicholas

cheers sir, but YOU MISSED MINCE PIES TODAY :o

Posted: 17-12-09 13:16 by Adam Helstrip

Awh I used to love learning diseases. I MISS AS :( :( :(

Posted: 17-12-09 18:12 by Lauren Carry