The Cold war

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Can you please help and write a short paragraph to describe in detail each of the following:

soviet expansion in Easter Europe

The Truman Doctrine and its purpose

The Marshall plan and its effects

Czechoslovakia 1948

The Berlin Blockade and Airlift

NATO

the arms race 1945-55

the korean war

the warsaw pact

PLEASEEEEEEEEEEEE i need help and it's to help me be prepared for my mock next week :( :(

Posted Tue 4th December, 2012 @ 20:05 by Dolly James

16 Answers

  • 7 votes

The US President Roosevelt died in 1945. He was replaced by Truman who was strongly anti-Communist and, as the war came to an end, the relationship between America and Russia fell apart.

Summary

In 1945, Harry S Truman became president of the USA, determined to confront Communism. He is reported to have told his advisers:

The Russians only understand one language - how many armies have you got? I'm tired of babying the Soviets.

Harry S Truman, 1945

But this was not the only cause of trouble. Historians believed that the wartime alliance between the Soviet Union and America was also wrecked by the huge differences between the two countries in:

  • Politics - America was capitalist, Russia was communist.
  • Lifestyle - America had freedom and a two-party democracy; Russia had secret police and a one-party state.
  • Aims - America wanted Germany to recover as a trading partner; Russia wanted to weaken Germany and create a buffer zone of friendly states around Russia.

The decade after the Second World War saw Communism spread to the Far East, eventually dividing Korea. The Korean War lasted three years and peace was only achieved when the use of the atomic bomb was threatened.

The problem in Korea

In 1945, Korea was split along the 38th parallel between a communist north led by Kim IL Sung, and a non-communist south led by Syngman Rhee.

But communism was growing in the Far East. In 1949, the Communists had taken power in China. The US developed the 'domino theory' - the idea that, if one country fell to communism, others would follow like a row of dominoes. Then, in 1950, a report by the American National Security Council ('NSC68') recommended that the US stop containment and start to roll back communism.

The war

  • In 1950, after getting the support of Russia and China, Kim IL Sung invaded South Korea.
  • The North Korean People's Army (NKPA) easily defeated the Republic of Korea's army (the ROKs).
  • By September, the NKPA had conquered almost the whole of South Korea.
  • The USA went to the United Nations and got them to send troops to defend South Korea.
  • The Russians couldn't veto the idea because they were boycotting the UN at the time.
  • In September, UN troops, led by the US General MacArthur, landed in Korea and drove the NKPA back.
  • By October, the UN forces had almost conquered all of North Korea.
  • In November 1950, Chinese People's Volunteers attacked and drove the Americans back.
  • They recaptured North Korea, and advanced into South Korea.
  • The Americans landed more troops and drove the Chinese back to the 38th parallel, where Truman ordered General MacArthur to stop and sacked him when he disagreed.
  • The war went on as border clashes until 1953 when America's new president, Eisenhower, offered peace, but threatened to use the atomic bomb if China did not accept the offer.

Recently, historians have shown that the Korean crisis almost led to a third world war - many US advisers wanted to use the atomic bomb.

The collapse of the wartime alliance led to a Cold War between the two superpowers. Hope this helps/ed x

Answered Tue 4th December, 2012 @ 21:22 by Alex
  • 1 vote

In 1947, two important events occured: firstly, President Truman warned the American Congress that it was America's job to contain Communism - this became known as the Truman Doctrine - and secondly, General George Marshall came up with a plan to help Europe recover from the war using American money - this became known as the Marshall Plan. In this Revision Bite, you will learn about these policies.

Events 1947

By 1947, Greece was one of the few countries in Eastern Europe that hadn't turned communist. The Communist rebels in Greece were prevented from taking over by the British Army.

America was becoming increasingly alarmed by the growth of Soviet power. So, when the British told Truman they could no longer afford to keep their soldiers in Greece, Truman stepped in to take over. In March 1947, he told the American Congress it was America's job to stop communism growing any stronger. This was called the Truman Doctrine. It is often said that Truman advocated containment (stopping the Soviet getting any more powerful), but Truman did not use this word and many Americans spoke of "rolling back" communism.

In June 1947, General George Marshall made a visit to Europe to see what was needed. He came away thinking Europe was so poor that the whole of Europe was about to turn Communist. Marshall and Truman asked Congress for $17 billion to fund the European Recovery Programme nicknamed the Marshall Plan - to get the economy of Europe going again. Congress at first hesitated, but agreed in March 1948 when Czechoslovakia turned Communist. The aid was given in the form of food, grants to buy equipment, improvements to transport systems, and everything "from medicine to mules". Most (70 per cent) of the money was used to buy commodities from US suppliers: $3.5 billion was spent on raw materials; $3.2 billion on food, feed and fertiliser; $1.9 billion on machinery and vehicles; and $1.6 billion on fuel.

Stalin forbade the Cominform countries to apply for Marshall Aid.

Answered Wed 5th December, 2012 @ 21:09 by Alex
  • 1 vote

In 1945, the Allies decided to split Germany into four zones of occupation. The capital, Berlin, was also split into four zones. The USSR took huge reparations from its zone in eastern Germany, but Britain, France and America tried to improve conditions in their zones.

In June 1948, Britain, France and America united their zones into a new country, West Germany. On 23 June 1948, they introduced a new currency, which they said would help trade.

The next day, Stalin cut off all rail and road links to west Berlin - the Berlin Blockade. The west saw this as an attempt to starve Berlin into surrender, so they decided to supply west Berlin by air.

The Berlin Blockade lasted 318 days. During this time, 275,000 planes transported 1.5 million tons of supplies and a plane landed every three minutes at Berlin's Templehof airport.

On 12 May 1949, Stalin abandoned the blockade

Answered Wed 5th December, 2012 @ 21:09 by Alex
  • 1 vote

The Berlin Airlift was an ingenious solution to a very serious supply problem during the Cold War. After the Second World War, Germany was divided up into several administrative districts by the French, British, Americans, and Russians. The Western half of the nation was administered by the Allies, and an Eastern half handled by the Russians. The city of Berlin was located in East Germany. However, Berlin was of such strategic importance that the city itself was divided into sectors as well.

The Western Allies and Russia had differing ideas on how Germany should be rebuilt. These differences often resulted in tension between them. In early 1948, the Russians decided to attempt to choke the Western nations out of Berlin by cutting off their access to supplies. They began by closing roads around Berlin, and then refused to allow supply trains to cross East Germany to reach Berlin. The civilian and military occupants of West Berlin faced a serious supply deficit.

Answered Sat 8th December, 2012 @ 14:44 by Alex
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will try to help, lemme jus do some research bout da stuff first... x

Answered Tue 4th December, 2012 @ 20:22 by Alex
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if someone has any A2 cold war notes could you please send them to me or put them up

please and thankyou **

Answered Tue 4th December, 2012 @ 20:32 by Fatima
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yeah cool- if i can find any will do x

Answered Tue 4th December, 2012 @ 20:35 by Alex
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thaankyou **

Answered Tue 4th December, 2012 @ 21:00 by Fatima
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s-okay x

Answered Tue 4th December, 2012 @ 21:10 by Alex
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Thank you so muchhh Alix :)

if you guys can help me on the other ones it would be very nice of u :) thank you :) 

Answered Wed 5th December, 2012 @ 18:28 by Dolly James
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yep, dats fine x

Answered Wed 5th December, 2012 @ 20:28 by Alex
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Thank youu soo muchhh... can someone tell me what the berlin airlift iss???

Answered Wed 5th December, 2012 @ 21:18 by Dolly James
  • 0 votes

Can anyone help me pleaseeeeeeeeeeee :(

Answered Sat 8th December, 2012 @ 11:47 by Dolly James
  • 0 votes

Thank you Alix again!! you are soo helpful :) what was the arms race?

Answered Sat 8th December, 2012 @ 14:58 by Dolly James
  • 0 votes

is this for the aqa paper?

Answered Sun 24th February, 2013 @ 19:44 by Hannah Calvert
  • 0 votes

The arms race was who had the most power between USA AND USSR (RUSSIA)

Answered Mon 8th April, 2013 @ 15:58 by Harriet