HELP!!! IGCSE CHEMISTRY??? CRUDE OIL!!!
- 0 votes
Hi guys , im currently studying igcse chemistry and have a test tomorrow. Our teacher gave us a list of things 2 revise for and i wanted to know how 2 seperate and extract crude oil plz. I think most of you are doing a level so if u could help me id really appreciate it!!!
- 1 vote
I'm doing GCSE, not IGCSE but we have covered that topic recently.
Crude oil is formed after millions of years from fossils and is a mixture of hydrocarbons and sulfur.
Crude oil is extracted from pumping oil from the ground through drilling.
Crude oil is seperated through "Fractional Distallation". Since each hydrocarbon has a different boiling point, it can be seperated through heating. The Hydrocarbons with high boiling points condense first lower down in the tower whilst the hydrocarons with lower boiling points condense higher up the tower. Also note that as the number of carbon atoms increases, as does the boiling point
Certain hydrocarbons with extremley low boiling points don't condense at all and are collected as gases :)
Here is a fractional distallation diagram which will undoubtedley help more: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/images/5_fractional_distillation.gif
I hope I helped ^^
- 1 vote
Erm, I think the image that I just posted earlier was how it is done industrially.;)
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/70/Fractional_distillation_lab_apparatus.svg I believe that image is when it isn't done industrially :P
Cracking is done to make longer chain hydrocarbons into shorter more useful hydrocarbons (e.g Petrol). Most of the hydrocarbons found it crude oil are alkanes, so when it is "cracked" it produces both a short chain alkane and a alkene. This is done by adding heating the alkane to a high temperature, making sure it has high pressure and adding a catalyst (a substance which speeds up a chemical reaction but isn't used up in the process). http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_Nn7AL_BBoy4/TFO3_IrQ6pI/AAAAAAAAAFI/CpV2amAAZiU/s1600/cracking.jpg
Do you know what an Alkane and an alkene are?
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THANKYOU SOOO MUCH!!!!!!!! yeah that helped a great deal ... i am new to my current school and they covered cracking and crude oil last year when i was at another school so it was VERY confusing. I was going to ask a few more questions that you may be able 2 help me with:
- How fractional distillation is done industrially
How cracking is done industrially