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  • Durkheim - education socialises us and prepares us with norms and values. Provides us with the skills needed by employers, provides integration and social solidarity 
  • Parsons - education is a microcosm (small version) of the adult occupational world, role allocation
  • Davis + Moore - stratification (high grades, higher and better paid jobs) and meritocracy (those who work the hardest will be given the best grades) 


  • Bowles and Gintis - correspondance theory, there is a work between unfairness in the workplace and in education and teaches hierarchy
  • Bourdieu - The more cultural capital a person has (upper class values and mannerisms) the more favourably they will be treated in education
  • Althusser - education reproduces class differences through the superstructure (holds us within our social class)


  • Becker - teacher labelling affects students performance
  • Rosenhal and Jacobson - self fulfilling prophecy
  • Hargreaves - 3 stages of teacher labelling: speculation (first judgements), elaboration (opinions may change) and stabilisation (label is fixed and hard to change)
  • Rist - play group labelling when children are put into groups such as tigers, cardinals and clowns < act like their label e.g. tigers acted brave and powerful, clowns acted funny
  • Fuller - black females right the label


  • Oakley - education benefits males as it is a patriarchal institution
  • Sharpe - females prioritise a family over education
  • Kelly - gendered textbooks e.g. pictures of cars and football
  • Stanworh - teachers pay more attention to males, girls lack confidence in themselves
  • Spender - invisible women in textbooks in regards to business and history - lack of female role models for girls

Left wing

  • Dewey - schools should encourage free thinking tasks for spiritual, emotional and physical education
  • Illich - The whole education system should be changed (de-schooling) there should be more emphasis on tasks like typing, woodwork and speaking a foreign language

Right wing

  • Thather - power needs t be given to the teacher in the classroom, increase testing and exams
  • Chubb and Moe - believe a voucher system should be introduced to purchase education

Theorists on gender 

  • Myhill - coursework benefits females
  • Sukhunandan - males more likely to develop an anti-school subculture
  • Mac an Ghail - crisis of masculinity for boys, unsure how to act towards education, should they be intelligent or rebellious?
  • Burns and Bracey - girls are socialised into spending more time out of school with work and revision

Theorists on class

  • Driver - deferred gratification: middle class pupils more likely to put off rewards in order to gain greater ones in the future 
  • Lewis - instant gratification: working class pupils seek immedite rewards in order to help cope with their surroundings
  • Willis: learning to labour: 18 month study looking at working class boys and found they had low aspirations and targets with little interest to education
  • Becker - labelling
Posted: 20-05-13 21:08 by Emma


Posted: 20-05-13 21:09 by Tasha Starkey