Youth and Education - Summarised

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  • Youth and Education
    • Class Affects Academic Achievement
      • Parental Attitudes
        • Douglas
          • Middle class parents are more likely to visit schools to discuss progress, so their child's academic success can be improved.
        • Willis
          • Studied a group of 'lads' who adopted traditional masculine roles and valued this over education, because the needed to be tough/manly to do manual work.
        • King and Raynor
          • Untitled
      • Language
        • Bernstein
          • Elaborated and restricted code. Working class are less likely to understand elaborated code, but the curriculum is taught in this so they are disadvantaged.
      • Cultural Capital
        • Bourdieu
          • Believe that middle class children are more likely to have access to academic based things, like trips out to museums, therefore are advantaged over the working class pupils.
      • Material Barriers
        • Callender and Jackson
          • Untitled
    • Gender Affects Academic Achievement
      • Attitudes
        • Sharpe
          • 70's - Girls wanted love and marriage whereas 90's - Girls want career and financial independance.
      • Subject Choice/ Curriculum
        • Kelly
          • Science is a boy dominated subject.
            • Colley
        • Colley
      • Pro and Anti-School Subcultures
        • Willis
          • Studied a group of 'lads' who adopted traditional masculine roles and valued this over education, because the needed to be tough/manly to do manual work. Created an anti-school lad subculture.
      • Hidden Curriculum
        • Skelton
          • Some teachers may suggest certain subjects are more suitable for the different sexes.
    • Ethnicity Affects Academic Achievement
      • Parental Attitudes
        • Archer and Francis
          • Untitled
        • Driver and Ballard
          • South Asian parents see their children as a useful resource so push them to do well and be ambitious.(Asian)
      • Language
        • Modood
          • Lack of fluency in English affects understanding, especially when it isn't spoken at home.(Bangladeshi and Pakistani)
      • Cultural Differences
        • Sewell
          • Black males are involved in a culture of 'hyper masculinity' which is anti-school.
      • Institutional Racism or Labelling
        • Gilborn
          • Black males are negatively stereotyped as 'a threat' and 'disruptive' therefore these boys then become their label. (self-fulfilling prophecy)
        • Becker
          • Believes teachers hold an 'ideal pupil' label, white middle class, meaning anyone not in the label bracket is disadvantaged.
      • Ethnocentric Curriculum
        • Coard
          • Believes the curriculum used in schools is based on only one culture, British culture, e.g. English literature, language etc.

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