Summary of X-rays in the Edexcel GCSE Science Extention Units Student Book. This is P3.11 in the book.

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  • X-Rays
    • Ionising Radiation
      • Turns atoms into ions by removing some of their outer electrons
    • Some electromagnetic radiation are ionising
    • More energy the X-rays have, the more ionising they are.
    • An X-ray machine consists of an evacuated tube that contains 2 electrodes.
      • The cathode (negative) is a wire filament.
        • When heated it becomes an electric gun.
          • it emits electrons in a process called thermionic emission.
      • The anode (positive).
    • Comparing Currents
      • if the  temperature of the cathode is increased the number of electrons emitted increases.
        • this increases the number of X-rays produced.
    • I=Nxq
      • N=number of particles flowing each second
      • I=current in amperes
      • q=charge of each particle in coulumbs
    • kinetic energy= 1/2mv2
      • m=mass of an electron in kg.
      • v=velocity of electron in m/s (v is squared)


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