Russia in WW2 (economic, social, political and opposition)

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  • Russia in WW2
    • Opposition
      • Hitler hoped to encourage an anti-Stalinist revolt
        • Germans welcomed as liberators of harsh Stalinism
          • Estonia, Lithuania, Belorussia + Ukraine
        • Those in national minority areas became collaborationists ('Hilfswillige')
          • Estonia, Lithuania, Belorussia + Ukraine
        • Cossacks widely involved in Nazi collaboration (later annihilated)
        • Worked against Nazi - harnessing support of non-Russian nationalists
          • Racial divide
          • Nazi policy to kill 75% and enslave others angered Russians
          • Bomb-making factory hidden in Naliboki forest (run by Jews)
      • Russian liberation movement
        • Formed in Ukraine under Andrey Vlasov
        • Became a division of the Waffen-**
          • At its peak had 50 000 soldiers fighting against the 'Red Army'
      • Order #227 - 'no one step backwards'
        • More than 150,000 sentenced to death
      • Penal battalions
        • For those who broke discipline
        • Most dangerous jobs
    • Political impact
      • Stalin action to prevent political disintegration
        • Aug 1941 dissolved Volga German republic + sent people to the east
        • Deported suspect ethnic groups
          • E.G. Karachai Kalmyks Chechens Ingushi Meskhetians
          • 1.5 mill were uprooted
        • Extension of the purges
          • Those 'suspected' were treated brutally
          • 2/3rds survived journey to Siberia
      • Army
        • Political education of troops
        • Stalin brought back badges of rank
        • 5 mill candidate members and 2.6 mill new members joined the party
          • 2.5 mill from army + navy
        • By 1945 1/4 armed forces communist + 20% members of Komosol
        • Communism over fascism
    • Social impact
      • Workers/ soldiers
        • 70-77 hr working week
        • Holiday suspended
      • Food shortages - 6 mill death due to starvation
      • Refugee crisis - 1000s live in tents winter "41-"45
      • Church
        • Russian patriarch (abolished by Tsar) reinstated
        • Clergy released from camps
        • Lift morale
        • Arm of gov
        • Not allowed real autonomy
      • Women
        • Tax increased if less than 2 kids
        • + kids = 'heroines of SU'
        • +1/2 mill fought in SU as pilots/ snipers/ tank commanders
        • 1945 - 4/5+ land workers female
        • local defence
      • Partisans
        • Zoya Kosmodemyanskaya = 'hero of SU'
          • Refusal to betray comrades when caught by Nazi
        • "43 = 30 000
          • "45 = million+
        • 1000s innocent massacred in villages
        • Forced to live in occupied territory
    • Economic impact
      • Scorched earth policy
        • Destroy anything useful for enemy before retreating
        • Totalitarian regime = had to
        • 5YPs + command economy meant they could enforce this
      • 1532 factories + workers transplanted
      • New railways to front line
      • People commissar = max production
      • By mid-1943 industrial output exceeded Germany
        • Superior quality
        • T-34 tank
      • Food
        • Strict rationing
        • Grain harvest "42 1/3rd of "the 40
        • Encouraged to cultivate soil
      • Foreign aid
        • Tanks/Lorries from UK (Iran sent)
          • By mid-1943 industrial output exceeded Germany
            • Superior quality
            • T-34 tank
        • 17.5 mill tonnes military equip/ transport/ food shipped from West
          • 94%US
            • "41 lend lease = 11 bill $ aid
            • Supplied 5 mill tonnes of food
              • Food
                • Strict rationing
                • Grain harvest "42 1/3rd of "the 40
                • Encouraged to cultivate soil

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