WW1 Revision

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  • Created by: K4typ
  • Created on: 16-05-18 12:04
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  • WW1
    • Organisation for the State of War
      • Growth of modern communications  encouraged a greater sense of nationalism. 
      • The French took over taxi to get troops to the river Marne 1914 
      • Development of railways made military movements easier.  
      • Price controls
      • Women in factories Britain
      • Properganda
        • posters - Lord Kitchener
      • 80% of the worlds population was at war
      • Reserved occupations  UK mining and farming these people did not do go to war
      • The Development of the idea and practice of Total War (civilian involvement and casualties)  
        • DORA 1914
          • UK gov powers over conscription, freedom of speech
          • compare with Levee en Masse
    • The impact of public opinion
      • War was more popular in western than eastern Europe. Rural areas lacked access to propaganda. 
      • Soldiers Who didn't want to  go war where shamed with a white feather normally given
      • News given through BBC helped to boot morale
      • speech given to boost morale
    • The influence of economic factors
      • Concern about naval supremacy led to a 400% increase in navla expenditure which went from 10. 8 million In 18844 to 48.8 million in 1914
      • Germany steel production 3.16 million tons 1890 to 13.15 million tons 1910
      • Increasingly destructive
        • Higher power artillery millions of shells
    • Quality of troops
      • German army   887,000 by 1914
        • incrased over time
      • BEF- British expeditionary force
        • relatively small used to fighting small colonial wars
      • Volunteer army 2.5 million by 1916 Britain
      • 1916 military service act - conscription  UK
      • 5 million joined the army between  1914 and 1918 UK
      • Centeral powers 25 million men in arms
      • allies40 million men  in arms
      • 10 million service men died
        • 700,000 British soldiers
    • Development of tactics (shock tactics cult of the offensive)
      • The French army returning to its traditions, no longer knows any other law than that of the attack – Joseph Joffre
      • 8 million shells fired before the battle of the Somme 
      • Frontal assults -vs machine guns - battle of the Somme
      • Air-plane used to  make sure artillery was aiming correctly also used for reconnaissance
      • Germans dug trenches on high ground  and mostly played a defensive role
        • because they had high ground this meant they could see where they where aiming there artillery
      • two front an advantage for the allies
      • trench war-fare
        • development of support trenches
          • American civil war trenches
      • Creeping Barrage
        • Artillery fire would cover an infantry advance  in practice
          • Soldiers got held up though
      • French used field telephones
        • Used to talk to there Artillery directly
    • The Impact of Generalship on Warfare
      • Supposed to be "over by Christmas"
        • went on for 4 years
      • Bad generalship
        • 20,000 killed on the first day UK
          • repeated this on 2nd day
        • 60,000 wounded or killed
        • Haig the Bitcher of the Somme
          • Didnt implament tech particualry well
            • tanks used on muddy ground
              • Battle of Cambria used on harder chalky ground
                • 378 used
    • War Plans and their successes
      • German schlifflen Plan
        • plan to knock france out the war
          • ended up with a war on two fronts
          • Schlieffen Plan 1.5 million through Luxembourg and Belgium and encircle Paris .  Too detailed drawn up on strict timetable bais. Failed.  
      • French 17  Mass  frontal attack through alsaac lorraine  - shot to bit 300,00  french casualties 
    • developments in communications and transport
      • Combustion engine had potential to deliver large numbers of troops to front but engine unreliable  could only be used on roads which where built.
      • London buses used to take soldiers to front + Parisian taxi’s  to take troops to Marne. 1914 
    • developments in weaponry
      • Chemical Warefare – 1st used by Germans at 2nd battle of ypres 1915
        • But dependent on wind direction.  Blown back at British at Loos 1915.
      • Tanks – protected troops from machine guns, initially unreliable, moved at 2 miles per hour + not enough of them. 1st time – 49 used at Somme. Cambrai 1917 350. Played role in breakthrough 1918. 
      • tanks 1916
      • submarines
        • German U-boat campaign against Allied trade routes 1914
      • Rifles and artillery still used but scale bigger
      • The British used more shells in a 35 minute bombardment the Battle of Neuve Chappelle in 1915 than in the entire boar war
    • Changing Nature of Warfare
      • wars Much longer in general
        • Somme July-November 1916
    • Alliances, plans and their effectiveness
      • Economic resources + manpower US brought to war 1918 Crucial Alliance betwixt FR + BR à Appointment of SAC Foch
      • Allies launched co-ordinated attacksà advances Co-ordination of allies coincided with collapse of German alliances + central powers member seeking peace terms. 
    • Organisation, command and control of armies
      • Biggest Change appointment of Supreme Allied Cmndr Foch
      • Both sides developing smaller units + delegating command. D trained non-commissioned officers to take over à concept of developed initiative 1916 – important in 1918 advances
    • The development of strategy
      • Britain feared that national security was being threatened by militarism, German trade rivalry and a large German fleet.

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