Rapid Urbanisation, Counter-Urbanisation & Re-Urbanisation Case Studies

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  • World Cities Urbanisation Case Studies
    • RAPID URBANIZAT-ION, MUMBAI
      • Megacity on the West coast of India
      • It is a major port - 'Gateway to India'
      • India's financial and cultural centre, home to Bollywood.
      • One of the fastest growing populations in the world - 5 million in 1970, 25 million in 2015.
      • PUSH FACTORS
        • ECONOMIC
          • The 'Green Revolution', a government programme to improve agriculture reduced work mechanisati-on of agriculture
          • Small farms can't compete, so have to sell.
          • Land is unsustainab-le malnutrition
        • SOCIAL
          • Education and health standards are lower
          • Fewer job prospects
      • PULL FACTORS
        • ECONOMIC
          • TNCs have bought industry - much higher pay than farmwork
          • UN has invested in Mumbai - quality of living is better
        • SOCIAL
          • Good schools and unis
          • Sewage disposal, electricity and water
          • Family and Friends
          • Better quality of living
            • 'Housing Elite' live close to the CBD.
              • BUT about 700,000 people live rough, mainly migrants who are poor
      • DHARAVI - 'THE BIGGEST SLUM IN ASIA'
        • Home to over 600,000 people spread over 2km2.
        • vast range of businesses that generate over $40m per year
        • Outbreak of disease is common - malaria and dengue fever
          • High infant mortality rate  40/1000
        • More waste due to population increase         25% of deaths in Chamba between 2007-08 were caused by respiratory problems
        • MANAGEM-ENT
          • 2004 - Redevelopm-ent project announced by the government to clear the slum and create a new independent township. New water system, hospitals and schools
            • X - residents against as they had already established successful businesses. Destroy livelehoods and community feel.
          • 1995 - Slum Sanitation Project - started by NGOs. Built 330 communal toilets
          • Rainwater Harvesting Systems - created by the local authorites to try and reduce demand for water.
            • Compulsory on all new residential buildings on plots larger than 300m2.
              • X - since 2007 only half of eligable buildings actually installed it
          • Alternative Vehicles - scooters/mopeds, helps reduce congestion. BUT adds to poor air quality.
            • Upgraded Public Transport System - METROSY-STEM. over 140km of new rail. Not completed until 2021.
    • SUBURBAN-ISATION, SURBITON, LONDON
      • South West London in the borough of Kingston-upon-Thames
      • Population increased from 141,000 in 1971 to 160,000 in 2011 as a result of suburbanisat-ion from the centre of London.
      • Transport links to the centre of London = popular wiith commutors
        • Fastest  train reaches London Waterloo in 18 minutes. Also to the A3.
      • Good quality housing
      • Wealthy area with good shops and restaurants
      • Good state schools and parks, so popular with families.
      • PROBLEMS
        • 70% of households have at least one car - congestion
        • In London Travel Zone 6 - fares into Central London are expensive so many commuters chose to drve
          • 40% of Surbiton's working populations drive to work
        • House prices are high - average selling price in April 2012 was £406,000 - UK average was £226,000
          • Makes it harder for people of lower incomes to move to the area - ECONOMIC SEGREGATION
      • MANAGEM-ENT STRATEGI-ES
        • 2009 - 'Improveme-nt Strategy For Surbition Town Centre' launched. proposed widening roads, new access to the train station, set delivery times to combat congestion.
        • Pedestrian access improved
        • Campaign to re-list Surbiton as a London Travel Zone 5, making tube prices cheaper, encouraging tube use
        • Surbiton Neighbourh-ood Comittee set up to involve local residents in local decision making
    • COUNTER-URBANIZAT-ION, ST IVES, CAMBRIDGE
      • 70 miles North of London.
      • 1961 it's population was 3,800 by 2012 it had reached 16,400
      • Good access to rail links to Cambridge and London, 1/4 of the working population commute to London each day.
      • IMPACTS
        • Traffic is a problem, especially on the A14, the main commuter route from St. Ives to Cambridge
        • Average price of detached house rose from £130,000 to £291,000 between 2000 and 2010
        • Housing demand has meant that property is built on the floodplain of the River Ouse - history of flood problems - 1000 properties at risk
        • More shops and services in town - more competition
        • Changing population structure due to movement of families. More under 16 than over 65 - pressure on schools
      • MANAGEM-ENT STRATEGIES
        • Plans to expand primary schools to make 240 new places avaliable
        • 2007 - Flood protection works completed along the River Ouse costing £8.8 million - new embankments and flood walls
        • £116 million guided bus way from St Ives to Huntington to Cambridge - reduce congestion
        • 200 new homes to be built, 75 affordable housing
        • New train station at Cambridge - quicker travel time to London, reduces number of commuters that use Huntington station

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