Global Englishes

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  • World Englishes
    • Theorists
      • Jennifer Jenkins (2005)
        • Five characteristics of English as a Lingua Franca.
          • Lingua Franca: Common lang amongst speakers who come from different linguistic backgrounds
          • Used by speakers of different languages allowing them to communicate with each other
          • Alternate to English as a foreign language rather than a replacement for it
          • May include innovations that might characterise local varieties of English
          • Linguistic Accommodation + Code Switching useful strategies in ELF
          • Lang of proficient ELF users tends to be used for description for the purposes of possible codification
            • Codification: Standardizing/developing of the norm
      • Braj Kachru (1992)
        • Three Circles Model (Ways English is evolving)
          • World Englishes classified in 3 different circles
            • Each circle: A way in which English has been spread, acquired + used
            • Inner Circle: Countries where English is the native language (e.g. USA, UK)
            • Outer Circle: English has an 'official status' (Norm developing) e.g. Indie, Nigeria
            • Expanding Circle: English has no official status (E.g. China,Russia,Brazil)
            • Jenkins (2003)
              • Kachru's model is designed having in mind geography and genetics.
                • Does not factor in how users identify themselves e.g. some use English just at home
      • Streven's World Map of English (1980)
        • Illustrates the dominance of English + the difference between British Eng and American Eng
      • Crystal (1987)
        • Reasons for switching from one lang to another.
          • Speaker may not be able to express him/herself in one lang so switches to another (Possibly tired, upset etc)
          • When a speaker wants to express solidarity with a particular social group.
          • Used to exclude others from a conversation who do not speak the 2nd lang.
          • Speaker wishes to convey hi/her attitude to the listener e.g. formality
    • Key Terms
      • Lingua Franca
        • A common lang amongst speakers who come from different linguistic background
      • Pidgin
        • A restricted lang which arises for the purpose of communication between two social groups of which one is more dominant.
          • Less dominant adopt the pidgin E.g. Natives
      • Creole
        • A pidgin that has become the first lang of a new generation of speakers.
      • Code Switching
        • Switching between two languages (Person who is Bilingual)
    • Australian + New Zealand English
      • No concentrationof a European lang other than English.
      • Still many Aboriginal Langs - but spoken by small numbers
      • Words brush, BUSH, CREEK, PADDOCK and SCRUB took on knew meanings (Broadening)
      • Words BROOK, DALE, FIELD and MEADOW went out of use (Became Archaic)
      • King Fisher changed from a - laughing ******* - Bushman's clock - kookaburra
      • Ropable - synonym for "angry" or "annoyed"
      • Australian Terms from Aboriginal Speech
        • Boomerang, Dingo, Kangaroo, Wallaby, Wallaroo
      • Very little regional variation
    • Singlish
      • Government insisted everyone should speak English
      • Hybrid Language - Mixture of English and Singaporean
      • First emerged when Singapore gained independence 50 years ago.
      • Various ethnic groups began infusing English with other words and grammar
        • Singlish became the language of the street
      • Language now seen as part of Singaporean identity and heritage
      • Generally spoken in informal situations. English used in formal situations.
      • Grammar
        • Mirrors Malay, which is indigenous to Singapore
        • Get rid of most prepositions, verb conjunction and plural words
      • Vocab
        • Borrows from Malay, Hokkien, Cantonese, Mandarin + Tamil from southern India
        • Having coffee- "lim kopi" combination of the Hokkien word for drink "lim" and the Malay word for coffee "Kopi"
        • Also have appropriated English words and turned them into something else
          • E.g. "whack" in singapore means to attack someone or digging into a meal.
        • Some singlish words are simply invented and don't mean anything on their own
          • e.g. " I got the cat lah" 'lah' is an assurance that you have  the cat
        • Some words are unique to Singapore e.g. 'Merlion' to vomit profusely

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