Explanations for working-class Underachievement

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  • Explanations for Working-class Underachievement
    • Lack of cultural capital
      • Developed by Bourdieu
        • Habitus
          • A cultural framework created by classes etc.
            • Untitled
    • lack of social capital
    • Working-class subcultures
      • Different classes have different values, beliefs and lifestyles which translates to different educational effects on children
      • Sugarman (1970) and Hyman(1967)
        • Show that different values and attitudes of the different classes do affect educational achievement
      • Perry and Francis (2010)
        • Show that different values and attitudes of the different classes do affect educational achievement
      • Sodha and Margo (2010)
      • Cultural deprivation and culture clash between home and school
        • W/C students are more likely to have a part time job creating a conflict between job and school demands
      • 'Problem' schools in deprived areas
        • Many schools rely on extra funding gathered from parents through fundraisers etc. If a school is situated in a deprived area less money will be accessible meaning the school will suffer
        • Catchment areas
          • Poor role models in more deprived areas
          • Cumulative issues form environment can lead to lack of discipline in more deprived area
          • Gibson and Asthana (1999) found greater level of family disadvantages the smaller the achievement rate at GCSE
      • Use of restricted code of language
        • Bernstein (1971)
          • Developed 2 types of code: elaborated and restricted
            • Elaborated used by schools
            • Elaborated used by middle and higher classes
            • Restricted used by lower classes in all environments
            • Used by most people in family situations etc.
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      • Parents impact
        • Poorer parents are less likely to have access to pre school facilities which can effect their children's development
        • Usually financially difficult for w/c families to support children in further education as the soul crushing debt tend stop hang over their heads like a ironically cruel sword of Damocles
        • May be financially difficult for w/c parents to financially support children through education
        • Douglas (1964) found single most important factor was the degree of parental encouragement
        • Feinstein and Symons (1999), Goodman and Gregg (2010) and Gorad, See and Davies (2012)
        • Middle Class parents:
          • Take more interest in their children's school progress
          • Become relatively more interest and encouraging as their children get older
          • Are more likely to want their children to continue into further education past the compulsory age
          • Finder it easier to engage in dealing with the school and teachers as they are also middle class and have a higher level of education meaning they know what things to do and places to go to increase their children captain materially and cultralloy
      • Teachers impact
      • Material factors
        • Cooper and Stewart (2013)
          • W/C children do worse because they are poorer not just because they are more linked to poverty
        • Waldfogel and Washbrook (2010)
          • Poor children are more likely to be exposed to:
            • Poor diets
              • Can lead to:
                • More illness
                • Making it hard to study
                • More absence
                • Tiredness at school
            • Overcrowding
              • Can lead to:
                • More illness
                • Making it hard to study
                • More absence
                • Tiredness at school
            • Insufficient space
              • Damp housing
            • Lack of income + unemployment can mean lack of:
              • Money for out of school trips
              • Sports equipment
              • Uniforms
              • Calculators
              • Technology like tablets and computers
              • Extra books
              • Extra tuition and support

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