Women's rights in India

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  • Women's rights in India
    • gender equality issues in India
      • employment opportunities-women expected to remain at home, raise children- subsistence farming, gender inequality in the labour market, limited access to employment opportunities
      • Discrimination in the workplace- maternity benefits denied by most,Delhi 25% of married women return to work after childbirth
      • Political participation- 11 % of women in lower house parliament, gender inequality is perpetuated by lack of women in gov.
      • Access to healthcare-1/3 of all households in Binar don't have access to healthcare- gender discrimination is related to cultural norms in Indian society
      • access to education-70% of girls attended primary school, lower for secondary- strong opposition of families, communities, poverty and cultural beliefs
      • Violence against women- 52% of women think its okay for a man to beat his wife- tolerated by communities, increase in **** and violence outside the home
      • modern slavery-14.3 million people were subject to modern slavery in 2014- trafficking for sex exploitation, early forced marriage and forced labour
      • property ownership- inheritance is patriarchal, women have very few rights in ownership of land or property
    • consequences of gender inequality on society in India
      • women subject to murder and abuse when they cannot meet the dowry demands- 2012 there were 8233 dowry related deaths
      • women subject to honour killings by family by not agreeing to arranged marriages or other gender norms- many women subject to violence and are beaten in the home
      • women's health is at risk during and after pregnancy- high maternal mortality rate- existing children at risk - limited education and poverty rate especially in rural areas- effects on child and maternal nutrition and high infant mortality rate (43 deaths per 1000 live births)
      • women subject to sex selected abortions in desire for male offspring. limited access to workforce increases dependency on husband
    • changing norms
      • problems faced by women are due to deeply ingrained gender based norms- persist but slowly changing by strengthening law, increasing laws, treaties and NGO's in local communities- improving educaion through the influence of media
      • India has verified international human rights treaties- agreed to incorporate laws into own national laws. treaties serve to advance freedoms and basic human rights to all people- joined Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)
      • acts of Parliament to address women's rights
        • prohibition of child  marriage act 2006
        • dowry prohibition act 2008
        • protection of women from domestic violence act 2005
        • sexual harassment of women at workplace act 2013
      • long term shifting of norms needs a practical approach
        • 2014- expansion of anti trafficking police units,specific training, more accurate reporting of crime, victim support programme
        • large companies providing childcare facilities and flexi-work options
        • intervention by NGOs- implementing development projects and taking a gendered approach e.g international centre for research on women is working in Delhi neighbourhoods- set up 'safe crimes' led women gaining confidence in reporting crimes and speak up for rights- also working with UN and gov.


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