Witchcraze Depth Studies

  • Created by: TaylorYS
  • Created on: 09-05-19 19:29
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  • Depth Studies
    • East Anglia
      • Context
        • Civil War
          • Charles I Vs Parliament
            • Collapse of traditional authority
          • King's opponents were the Puritans (Calvinists)
            • Feared the Devil, believed Charles was his agent
        • Situation in 1645
          • War outcome uncertain
          • Overtaxing and inflation
            • Poverty
      • Victims
        • Essex
          • Elizabeth Clarke
            • Accused by John Rivet
            • Admitted to John Stearne association with witches
              • Matthew Hopkins volunteered to help with the search for denunciations
                • Matthew Hopkins
                  • Devout Puritan
                  • He and Stearne were responsible for the deaths of over 100 witches
                • Used sleep deprivation on Clarke
                  • Familiars eventually appeared
                  • Clarke confessed and denounced Anne West
        • Suffolk
          • The fate of a was determined by local authority
          • Confinement, sleep deprivation, and intimidation were used
            • Finding a 'witches mark' was crucial
      • Causes/Reasons for prosecutions
        • Profit Motive
          • Hopkins took a large fee for his work
        • Hopkins and Stearne chose locations they would recieve a warm reception
          • Godly villages
        • Gender
          • Majority of the accused were women
            • Contrasted by the prosecution of John Lowes (a local vicar in suffolk)
        • Religion
          • Puritan preaching had convinced locals that the Devil posed a massive threat
            • Reinforced by the Civil War
        • Strains of Warfare
          • Local JPs were preoccupied with the war effort, local pressure got out of hand
      • The End
        • Opposition
          • July 1645 report led to 9 pardons granted for Essex witches
          • Hopkins and Stearne began to be questioned about their interrogation, fees, and evidence
        • Restoration of Charles II in 1660
          • Ruling elite focused less on witchcraft
      • Key Indiividuals
        • Matthew Hopkins
          • Devout Puritan
          • He and Stearne were responsible for the deaths of over 100 witches
        • John Stearne
          • Admitted to John Stearne association with witches
            • Matthew Hopkins volunteered to help with the search for denunciations
              • Used sleep deprivation on Clarke
                • Familiars eventually appeared
                • Clarke confessed and denounced Anne West
          • Staunch Puritan
          • Former land owner
    • Salem
      • Context
        • Political
          • The charter ran out in 1684
            • Temporary governors lacked authority with a charter in place
            • Fears that the colony would lose autonomy
          • Royal Charter allowed colonialists freedom, and a Puritan theocracy
          • New charter came in October 1691, Massachusetts had to conform to English law and allow religious toleration
        • King William's War
          • English colonialists Vs Native Americans
          • Native American refugees warned of massacres and savagery
        • Local Situation
          • 600 residents in Salem
          • Internal Disputes
            • Putnams Vs Porters
            • Agriculture Vs Capitalism
          • Samuel Parris (Village Minister)
      • Victims
        • Tituba
          • Made the 'witch cake' to be fed to a dog in order to seek out the afflicter
          • Was named by the girls as an afflicter herself, along with 2 others
            • Fit the natural stereotypes: outsiders/beggars/old women
            • Sarah Good
              • Accused Osbourne during her defence
            • Sarah Osbourne
          • Accused Good and Osbourne of being witches, as well as others in the village, during her own confession
        • Martha Corey
          • Accused by Ann Putnam of affliction
            • Due to voicing sceptisism
        • Rebecca Nurse
          • Accused by Ann Putnam of affliction
            • Due to voicing sceptisism
      • Accusers
        • Betty Parris
          • Hysterical Behavior/Fits
            • Determined by William Griggs (local doctor) to be the work of the devil
            • Other girls began to suffer: Ann Putnam Jr, Mercy Lewis, Mary Walcott, Elizabeth Hubbard
              • All linked to the Putnams, or Wiliam Griggs
                • The Putnam family threw their weight behind the prosecutions
            • Potential causes:
              • Psychological hysteria (through fear)
              • Possession neurosis
              • Convulsive ergotism (fungal infection)
              • Asthma attacks
        • Abigail Williams
          • Hysterical Behavior/Fits
            • Determined by William Griggs (local doctor) to be the work of the devil
            • Other girls began to suffer: Ann Putnam Jr, Mercy Lewis, Mary Walcott, Elizabeth Hubbard
              • All linked to the Putnams, or Wiliam Griggs
                • The Putnam family threw their weight behind the prosecutions
            • Potential causes:
              • Psychological hysteria (through fear)
              • Possession neurosis
              • Convulsive ergotism (fungal infection)
              • Asthma attacks
      • Causes/Reasons for prosecutions
        • Spectral Evidence
          • The girls claimed that they were being afflicted during the trial, by some invisible agent
            • A judge could not convict based on spectral evidence alone, so this had to be supported with further accusations of malificarum
            • There was some opposition to the use of spectral evidence
        • The accused denouncing eachother/confessing
          • Incited fear of the devil
            • Fear meant somewhat of a move away from patriarchy
        • Social Tensions
    • Bamberg
      • Context
        • Political
          • Prince Bishop Johann Gottfried von Aschhausen (1609-1622)
            • Determined to re-catholicise
              • Invited Jesuits
              • Founded new schools
              • Tried to remove any taint of protestantism
            • Burned around 300 'witches'
          • Prince Bishop Johann Georg Fuchs von Dornheim (1623-1633)
            • The 'Witch-Bishop'
              • Killed around 600 victims
              • 'Witch House' Torture Chamber
                • Held 30-40 prisoners
            • Aided by Bishop Friedrich Forner
              • Leader of Counter-Reformation
              • Author of witchcraft defence literature
        • Imperial Law (The Carolina)
          • Salvatory Clause
            • Following Imperial Law was optional
          • The courts would go to universities for help during trials
          • Standards of evidence, rules on torture, etc.
      • Victims
        • George Haan  (Vice Chancellor of Bamberg)     + family
          • Accused as a witch sympathiser due to lenience as a judge
          • Wife and daughter arrested, tortured, confessed, and burned
            • George and son fled, returned, confessed, and burned
              • Haan also confessed 5 others, who were also burned
        • Johannes Junius (Lord Mayor of Bamberg)
          • Haan also confessed 5 others, who were also burned
          • One of the men denounced by Haan
            • Tortured to the point of confessing
              • Denounced relatives, family members, and other witches aswell
      • Causes/Reasons for prosecutions
        • Counter-Reformatiion
          • Re-catholicisation
            • Though no true correlation between protestant areas and percentage of hunts
            • It was clear the catholic authorities influenced the nature of the hunts
        • Natural Disasters/War
          • Crop Failures
            • Scapegoats
          • Famine
            • Scapegoats
          • Plagues
            • Thirty Years War
              • Furthered the Catholic conquest
              • Loss of life and spread of disease
              • Economic Depression
          • Profit Motive
            • Rich victims' property and assets were confiscated
          • Chain Reaction
            • Torture led to more 'named accomplices'
            • Witches conformed less to stereotypes
        • The End
          • Imperial Opposition
            • Emperor Ferdinand II
              • Many plead for intervention from the imperial court
              • Ordered Haan and Flock's release, but was ignored by Dornheim
              • Eventually appointed a witch-hunt opposer as head of witch commission
                • Basis for accusations had to be made public, and legal counsel allowed for defendants
          • Death of Bishop Forner
          • Threats from Sweden
            • King Gustavus forced Dornheim to flee (Feb 1632), and die in exile

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