Causes of the Revolution in Iran

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  • Why was there a revolution in Iran?
    • 1979
    • wealthy country
      • poor majority
      • due to oil
    • Muhammad Reza Shah Pahlavi
      • in power 1941
        • after father was removed from power
          • by British and Russian troops
      • good relations with UK and USA
        • relation tested
          • prime-minister Muhammad Mossadiq
            • 1951 - nationalized british owned anglo-iranian oil company
              • popular with iranians
              • bad for west
                • refused to buy Iranian oil
        • iran became market for USA grain and meat
          • Iranian farmers put out of business
    • shah's actions
      • Iranians grew against him
        • Islamic leader
          • Ayatollah Khomeini
            • spoke against shah
              • Israel support
              • inappropriate films in cinemmas
              • criticized wealthy lifestyle when other Iranians were in poverty
                • 1971 - Shah paid over $100 million on a huge 3 day party celebrating 2500th anniversary of Persian empire
                  • he claimed it was only $40 million
              • forced to exile in france
                • still spoke against shah
                  • tapes were smuggled into iran
                  • respected by religious people
            • wanted to overthrow shah and establish Islamic government
        • despite banning of political parties
    • oppponents were publicly demonstrating against shah
      • 1978 - shah introduced marshall law
        • military rule
        • protest
        • black friday
          • more than 500 people killed
            • condemned by shah
            • people calling for death of shah
              • attempted to calm them down
                • gave more political freedom
                • released political prisoners
                  • still no impact
                    • gave more political freedom
                    • people calling for death of shah
                      • attempted to calm them down
                        • released political prisoners
                          • still no impact
                        • military sympathizing with protestors
                • military sympathizing with protestors
        • situation in Tehran was unstable
      • December 1978
        • people calling for return of Khomeini
          • shah knew he will be overthrown now
            • 1979 January, shah and wife left iran to treat cancer
              • 1979
      • February 1979 - Khomeini returns to iran on special flight
        • shah's prime minister tried to block the airport but failed
        • 10 days later Khomeini and other opposition take power
        • people used quran law and removed unislamic ideas
        • became anti western and especially anti american
        • November 1979 - students attack American embassy in Tehran for letting shah get treatment

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