Why did the Qing Dynasty collaspe

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  • Why did the Qing Dynasty collapse?
    • Failures of reforms and leaders
      • Manchu government introduced '100 Days' reform based on western models
        • Major modifications of the civil service    Extensive industrial reorganisations                           Innovations in education
        • Empress Cixi and the reactionaries took over the government and reformers were executed or imprisoned
        • The failure of the '100 Days' refom revealed the lack of cohesion among the reformers and the strength of conservatism in Chinese poltics
      • The boxer uprising  1900 - 1901
        • Cixi used national feelings to launch a nationwide campaign against 'foreign devils'
          • She gave her blessing to the Boxers, anti western secret societies
        • The western nations had little trouble crushing the boxers,
          • Humiliating China , little sympathy for imperial court incapable of leading people to liberation
        • Severe penalties: China had to pay $450 million the west, Arsenals and fortifications were destroyed, foreign troops were stationed permanently in Beijing
      • Further Manchu attempts at reform
        • Decided to create proivincial assemblies and ending the Confucian exam for civil-service servants
          • These were to rally support for the imperial government but were seen as unconvincing
          • Meant an increase in taxation
      • The railways
        • Aroused anti-Manchu feeling
        • Between 1895 - 1911, boom in railway construction and attracted international investment
          • Promised to bring prosperity of most regions of China
        • The Manchus wanted to nationalize the railways so the provinces wouldn't have financial and political independence
          • To raise capital for this programme, the government increased taxes and negotiated loans from the west.
            • This meant the China increase their dependence on the west and increased humiliation
    • Impact of Foreign involvement
      • Resentment of foreign interference became acute after 1900
      • The failure of the boxer rebellion intensified nationalist hatred of foreigners and concessions grew in number
      • There were potests against Russian activity in Mongolia and Manchuria and against the importation of American goods
      • Trigger of the revolution was the raising of foreign loans to nationalize the railways and the extension of foreign control of railway building
        • This meant the China increase their dependence on the west and increased humiliation
    • Growth of nationalist/ revolutionary movements
      • After Boxer rebellion, there were increased nationalist feelings
      • Many looked to Sun Yat Sen and the republican movement
        • His belief was that China could net modernize unless It became a republic
        • Wanted to regenerate their nation by removing foreign control and reasserting China's independence
        • Many plotted the down fall of the Qing and the membership grew to 10,000 by 1911
      • The practice of student going abroad led to the growth of western ideas which threatened the stability of the dynasty
      • The Qing were out of touch with China's growing nationalism and authoritarian tradition made it incapable of responding to their demands
        • Failures of reforms and leaders
          • Manchu government introduced '100 Days' reform based on western models
            • Major modifications of the civil service    Extensive industrial reorganisations                           Innovations in education
            • Empress Cixi and the reactionaries took over the government and reformers were executed or imprisoned
            • The failure of the '100 Days' refom revealed the lack of cohesion among the reformers and the strength of conservatism in Chinese poltics
          • The boxer uprising  1900 - 1901
            • Cixi used national feelings to launch a nationwide campaign against 'foreign devils'
              • She gave her blessing to the Boxers, anti western secret societies
            • The western nations had little trouble crushing the boxers,
              • Humiliating China , little sympathy for imperial court incapable of leading people to liberation
            • Severe penalties: China had to pay $450 million the west, Arsenals and fortifications were destroyed, foreign troops were stationed permanently in Beijing
          • Further Manchu attempts at reform
            • Decided to create proivincial assemblies and ending the Confucian exam for civil-service servants
              • These were to rally support for the imperial government but were seen as unconvincing
              • Meant an increase in taxation
          • The railways
            • Aroused anti-Manchu feeling
            • Between 1895 - 1911, boom in railway construction and attracted international investment
              • Promised to bring prosperity of most regions of China
            • The Manchus wanted to nationalize the railways so the provinces wouldn't have financial and political independence
              • To raise capital for this programme, the government increased taxes and negotiated loans from the west.
      • Financial Crisis
        • Growing burden of taxation of imposed in the years after the boxer uprising
        • The Qing reform programme caused massive budget deficits
        • Taxes on land and taxes on essentials like tea and salt
        • The reliance on foreign loans led to a nationalist backlash in the Wuhan uprising

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