Why did the Cold War come to an end?

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  • Why did the Cold War come to an end?
    • Soviet-American relations
      • Andropov attempted domestic reform but was too ill
      • Chernenko wanted no reforms
      • Gerontocracy- all old leaders
      • Relations became bad between 1980-85
      • Shooting down of Korean flight 1983
      • Face to face meetings needed but Soviet leaders too old
    • Mikhail Gorbachev- New Political Thinking
      • Gorbachev younger- had new ideas and wanted reform
      • Democratisation- get more new people involved in communist party
      • Perestroika- restructure economy and improve efficiency and quality of goods
      • Glasnost- encourage people to put forward new ideas
    • Summits
      • Washington 1987- INF signed so all ballistic missiles scrapped
      • Reykjavik 1986- No agreement because Reagan wouldn't stop SDI
      • Moscow 1988- More signing of agreements on the INF treaty
      • Geneva 1985- Not much agreed but relations were improving
      • Malta 1989- Both leaders declared Cold War as over
    • End of Brezhnev Doctrine
      • Hungary- In 1988 Kadar, communist leader, sacked; 1989 Hungary opened it's borders to the West
      • Poland- No longer communist from 1990
      • Hungary- No longer communist from 1990
      • Poland- 1988 government lifted martial law; 1989 Solidarity beat communists in elections
      • East Germany- Protests take Honecker out of power; new leader Krenz starts reforms
      • East Germany- 1989 Berlin Wall comes down; Germany becomes one
      • Romania- Ceausescu the leadertaken out of power and executed 1989: Communism destroyed
      • Czech- 1989 Velvet Revolution and no communism; splits into Czech Republic and Slovakia


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