The Cold War

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  • Why Did The Cold War Begin?
    • There were three meetings held between 1943 and 1945.
      • The Tehran Conference in 1943
        • This was planned to make decisions concerning the rebuilding of Europe after World War 2
        • It was agreed between Prime Minister Winston Churchill, President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin that Russia should have a sphere of influence in Europe.
        • They didn't agree on what should happen to Germany though
          • Stalin wanted Germany topay reperations for the damage done to his country
          • President Roosevelt and PM Churchill thought Germany should be rebuilt on the grounds that a peaceful Europe required a prosperous Germany.
      • The Yalta Conference 1945
        • Russia agreed to help America defeat Japan once Hitler had been defeated.
        • Churchill and Roosevelt agreed to there being a Communist governement in Poland
        • The Declaration on Liberated Europe commited the USSR, America and Britain to work together for democracy in Europe.
        • The Allies agreed to establish the United Nations, an organisation commited to maintaining peace in Europe
        • It was restated that the USSR should have a sphere of influence in Europe
      • Tensions
        • Stalin and Roosevelt had different ideas on what a democracy was. Stalin felt that it was a Communist government and Roosevelt believed it was lots of different political parties working to gain the public's affections and support.
        • Roosevelt died and the new American President, Harry Truman, was less willing to compromise with Stalin
      • The Potsdam Conference
        • The Potsdam Conference was the last meeting between the Big Three
        • It was agreed that the Nazi Party be banned and all survivng Nazis be prosecuted as warc riminals
        • Germany was reduced in size by a quarter and temporarily divided between the USSR, America, Britain and France.
          • It was agreed that reperations could be taken from each countries own quarter. Likewise, rebuilding Germany could take place.
        • The conference was postponed by Truman who wanted time to test out the first atomic bomb. Churchill noticed a change in his attitude.
        • Truman believed America held the ultimate weapon. He began to boss Stalin around. Stalin refused to be bossed and appeared unimpressed by the bomb.
        • Stalin planned to create a 'buffer zone' between Communist Russia and Capitalist Europe using Eastern European countries as a barrier. He also broke his word and established a purely Communist government in Poland. The relationship between America and Russia was turning sour
    • After Hitler was defeated, the relationship grew steadily more uneasy.
    • In 1941, America and the USSR were working together to stop Hitler.
      • This was a tense relationship because of their political differences.
        • America was Capitalist and believed in a hierarchy and businesses and homes being privately owned
        • Russia was Communist and believed that everything should be the same.


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