Why were there growing tensions after Potsdam?

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  • Why were there growing tensions after Potsdam?
    • Kennan's 'Long Telegram'
      • Kennan wanted a hard line stance against the USSR. Exaggeration was a possibility
      • Reflected on previous events and concluded that a USA-USSR compromise or alliance would be impossible to maintain
        • Nazi-Soviet Pact 1939
      • Looked at how the USSR was portraying the USA and UK
      • Felt the USA should be prepared to threaten and use military force, and that it allies' loyalties should be ensured. Should also take a protective role in Europe
      • Followed by the 'X' Article which called for systemati containment of communist expansion because of the USSR's aggressive foreign policy
        • Seen as a peaceful approach to containment and had an appealing 'this is necessary' tone
      • Resulted in Truman seeing the USSR as a threat to freedom and the USA's national security
    • Churchill's 'Iron Curtain' speech
      • Stated that there was a division of Europe into 2 'camps'
      • Accused Stalin of having an oppressive regime
      • Called for Western unity against the 'threat' of Communism
      • Delivered to university students as a means to test the reaction to the change in propaganda
    • The Truman Doctrine
      • February 1947 - the 'official' start to the Cold War
      • A result of the Greek Civil War, where communists were attempting to gain control. Stalin stuck to the Percentages Agreement and didn't help Greek communists
      • Meant to convince Congress that foreign policy should be transferred from isolation to intervention
      • Controversial because US taxpayers would fund the aid given to Greek capitalists
      • Argued that there were two camps
        • Stated that there was a division of Europe into 2 'camps'
      • Demonised communism
        • Called for Western unity against the 'threat' of Communism
      • Seen as a peaceful approach to containment and had an appealing 'this is necessary' tone
    • Soviet control of E. Europe 1945-48
      • Stalin ignored the Declaration on Liberated Europe
      • Used salami tactics; manipulation and intimidation; popularity or a mixture
      • Used gradualism in most cases to gain significant influence which led to domination.
      • The Czechoslovakian Crisis of 1948 enabled the passing of the Marshall Plan

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