Why was there unrest 1450-1455?

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  • Why was there unrest 1450-1455
    • The Duke of Suffolk
      • He sold Normandy and other French lands to France
      • He was freed and exiled for 5 years
      • Commons accused him of treason and he was sent to the tower
      • when he set sail from Ipswitch, another ship waited and beheaded him
    • Henry VI
      • Fled to the Midlands during Cade's rebellion
      • Too poor to pay local commodities or food and drink taken for royal households and ordinary royal servants went unpaid as Henry gave lands to all the nobles so income for those lands went to the lords and not Henry
      • Hired 'false councillors' who corrupted the legal system
      • Too religious and hardly fought in battle
      • 2 illnesses during his reign
      • York aceived more as protector than Henry did as King
      • Wounded by an arrow in the neck at St Albans
      • Didn't unite his nobility
      • Collapse in 1453-Dec 1454. Showed no emotion towards son
    • Over mighty nobles
      • Saye and Crowmer accused of fixing elections, reducing taxes made by Lords and making local people pay fines when falsely accused of crimes
    • Somerset and York Feud
      • Somerset became the King's leading councillor and York made attempts to replace him.
        • 1st was a political campaign. York had support from commons but not nobles as it seemed to encourage disruption
        • Tried to hit back in 1452, marching small army to challenge Somerset but backed down as he had limited support.
      • York had Somerset imprisoned in the Tower when he was made Protector in 1454.
      • When Henry recovered, Somerset feared York having power again if Henry relapsed and York feared Somerset taking action against him.
      • York may have thought he was the man to put England right so opposed Somerset. He also didn't rate Somerset's abilities after his failures in France.
      • Somerset besmirched York's honour when he gave up Rouen as he was absentee commander
      • They treated each other as enemies and interpreted each act as an attack, so each move brought up possibility of conflict
      • Somerset called the Great Council in Leicester in 1455 but didn't invite York
        • York interpreted this as Somerset trying to accuse him of treason
      • Only 2 nobles stood by York at Dartford, the rest stood by Somerset
    • Margaret of Anjou
      • She felt threatened by York and was worried for her young son's throne
      • Had a son which weakened York's claim to the throne
        • She felt threatened by York and was worried for her young son's throne
      • She was unpopular as she was from France
      • lobbied to be made regent in 1454 during Henry's illness
    • Cade's rebellion
      • He was an effective leader, gathering several thousand followers using the government's own system for raising an army
      • Rebe4ls camped at Blackheath in early June. king sent people to negotiate and score them so cade led them away, ambushed pursuers then returned
      • King fled to midlands
      • King's advisor murdered
      • Punished men believed to be corrupt traitors
      • Lord Saye excecuted
      • Violence made Londoners turn against Cade in night time battle
      • Londoners locked rebels out of London after battle
      • rebels pardoned and cade fled but  caught by sheriff of kent and killed
    • Economic problems
      • Cloth sales slumped so sheep farmers had less income
      • Fear of hunger and poverty
      • War with France was expensive
    • Loss of French towns
      • The Duke of Suffolk sold Normandy and other English lands in France
      • Rouen was surrendered in October 1449
      • An English relief army landed in Normandy only to be beaten in the battle of Formigny in April 1450
      • It shattered national pride
      • It was caused by treachery as Suffolk sold the lands for bribes
      • Soldiers quartered near coast, slump in cloth trade, increase in French attacks and a refugee problem

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