Why did the Kingdom of Kongo collapse?

View mindmap
  • Why did the Kingdom of Kongo collapse?
    • slave trade
      • Davidson: led to a whole variety of ills, including the undermining of royal prestige
      • Afonso’s letters of 1526 reveal concerns over the violations of his monopoly on the slave trade including de Melo’s clients on Sao Tome
      • Heywood:  the power of the manikongo was consolidated through slavery
      • 1612, Manuel sided with Sao Tome traders who had been working with subordinate chiefs on the Kwanza River.
      • jaga invasion of 1568 can be understood as an attack on the slave markets of the Teke frontier
      • Lopes: the invasion caused an major economic crisis where “each person obtained food in any manner they could”
      • slaves as an international currency was acknowledged by Garica II in 1643 as problematic
    • Portugal
      • 1575 - Portuguese colony off Anglo established
        • Luanda, under Portuguese control, created an alternative point for exporting slaves not under Alvaro's control
      • 1665 - Battle of Ambouila, army of 70,000 was defeated and Antonio was killed, at Mbwila, resulting in the execution of 98 titular heads of state
        • 1665-1710 - separatist activities led to decline of royal power which had become composed of competing factors
      • 1657 - de Sousa Chichorro exploited a rebellion against Garcia by sending in a large amy to Kongo which was met by the marquis of Mbumbi who was defeated
      • Wing: "the Portuguese...were a military power located at its borders", expansion of the colony of Angola and of the Imbangla bands
    • internal civil war and conflict
      • 1636 - Soyo declared its independence
        • van Wing: Soyo, Mbamda, Mbata and Nsundi became independent, Holy See talked to individual chiefs of provinces
      • 1506 - Afonso's death, struggle broke out between Diogo I and Kibala
      • 1666 - with Soyo's aid, the Kimpanzu attacked Sao Salvador and placed one of their members on the throne as Alvaro VIII, the Kinlaza later counter-attacked
      • 1710 - da Gallo: division from civil wars into Kimpanzu, Kinlaza and Kinkanga a Mvika
    • centralisation verse the kanda system
      • Goncalves: antagonism of "lineage against state"
      • each province had a provincial governor, the five peripheral provinces were administered by subordinate governors
        • Nsundi: military and commercial role, controlled relations with the Teke people who produced cloth and sold iron, ivory and copper in return for salt and nzumbi shells
      • the development of patrilineal categories meant that the Mwissikongo were able to monopolise access to political office and trade wealth whilst the other kandas had to hold onto their control of the land
      • the power of the manikomgo began to weaken and so needed to secure the support of the provinces, like the Silva patrilineal category in the west
        • central kanda juniors started to reassert the right of the central kanda to elect the manikongo
          • led to the election of Alvaro IV in 1623 and Garcia II in 1641
          • disputes between the kanda-derived Nlaza and the patrilineally derived Mpanzu Afonso
            • Antonio needed to show connection to both
    • Christianity
      • internal pressures causing fractionalism, Antonianism under Dona Beatriz
      • attempted to suppress practices considered sinful in Europe, primarily polygynous marriage or concubinage
      • 1548 - Jesuits were not well received as they were less tolerant of the syncretism of Catholicism with existing faiths
      • 1596 - the country was created as a separate see from Sao Tome and a bishop nominated for Sao Salvador
        • the king of Portugal was able to obtain the right to appoint the bishop to the seat and attempted to obtain real control of the church in Kongo which failed
      • Pina: once Nzinga a Nkuwu had converted non-Christians asked him "what disservice and treachery have you found in us"
        • 1509 - following the death of Joao I, civil war developed between Afonso I and Mpanzu a Kitima
          • Afonso later attributing his victory to a vision of Santiago Matamoros


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all African Kingdoms resources »