Why did the 4th crusade fail / get diverted to Constantinople?

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  • Why did the 4th crusade fail / get diverted to Constantinople
    • Lack of manpower
      • failure to secure expected numbers (1/3 of expected PPs, had a shortfall of 35,000 marks)
      • debt to Venice paid by attacking Zara
      • over estimation of numbers (exp. 33,500 but got 11,000)
    • Actions of leadership
      • Pope Innocent III
        • called the crusade
        • 1202 - threatened Alexius with crusade using diversion of Const as a threat
        • at first, congratulated taking of Const, then heard of the atrocities there are and condemned it
        • uniting of the churches = pope's ultimate goal
        • couldn't control the crusade and did not participate
      • Encrico Dandoldo & Venetians
        • created diversion to Zara for the payment of finance
        • Dandolo's diversion to Const for trading rights and privilages
        • over estimated envoys to attacks Zara and Const in repayment of debt
        • over estimated the number of crusaders
    • Actions of Alexius the younger
      • HAGENAU PLOT - 1201, Alexius escaped captivity and sought help from sister and her husband (Eirene and Philip of Swabia)
        • plot: deliberately divert crusade (Boniface present)
      • MEETING CRUSADERS AT ZARA - met in 1203 and promised 200,000 marks and 100,000 men in return for help against Emperor Alexius
        • Byz wealth would've helped financial crisis
      • FAILURE OF ALEXIUS - didn't meet agreement 1203-4. Crus = angry. Alexius is overthrown and killed by coup (1204) and new Emp, Alexius V refuses to pay. Crus sack the city in 1204
      • DECLINE OF RELATIONS WITH BYZ - growing intolerance and political and religious antipathy between E and W.
        • bad rels with Greeks made it unlikely that the crusaders would divert crusade SOLELY at the request of Byz
    • Greed
      • capture and sack of Const brought the crusade to a halt in April 1204

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