EPQ planning

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  • Why are there not more female MPs in the House of Commons?
    • The media
      • 'a structured marginalisation of women (Adcock, 2010)
      • 'a boys' club being reported on by a boys' club'
      • A lack of reporting on women's issues and female opinions on other issues leads to women become disengaged from politics
      • 'Activates' stereotypes so 'female candidates need to be incredibly strategic in crafting and controlling their campaign image'. (Bauer, 2015)
        • Added stresses of campaigning and serves as a deterrant.
    • Negative treatment
      • Almost two-thirds of respondents had received sexist remarks by other MPs (BBC, 2017)
        • Should be 'in the kitchen washing the dishes'
      • Between 1st January and the 8th June 2017, female MPs received 25,688 abusive tweets, 2.85% of all received tweets.
      • Discourages women from running.
      • Negatively impacts on current MPs, affecting performance and reinforcing stereotypes
    • Perceived difficulty
      • 52% of women (compared to 42% of men) were deterred by at least one aspect of a political campaign (Fox and Lawless, 2012)
      • Added stresses of campaigning and serves as a deterrant.
    • Socialiazation and stereotypes
      • 'the process of learning the culture of any society' (Browne, 2015)
      • Boys encouraged to 'encouraged to think independently, be active and speak up'. (Chapman, 2002)
        • Men more suited to politics as they have been socialized into politically relevant traits.
      • Women socialized into traditional roles
        • 43% of women compared to 7% are responsible for the majority of household tasks. 60% of women compared to 6% of men are responsible for the majority of childcare.
        • Women undertake the triple shift - 'paid work, domestic labour and childcare, and emotional work' (Browne, 2015)
        • Impacts on current female MPs and can lead to underperformance, reinforcing stereotypes
        • Women have less time to even consider becoming an MP
      • Negatively impacts on current MPs, affecting performance and reinforcing stereotypes
    • Constitutional and political issues
      • Conservative women are more likely to be a candidate in marginal seats of seats with less or no chance of winning.
      • A 2 main party system means women have to become candidates through already established parties
        • There is evidence of political parties having 'widespread incidences of direct and indirect discrimination by party selectors towards women candidates', (Kenney, 2015).
        • The party selection process is 'particularly adversarial, reflecting traditional male preferences' (Lovenduski, Russel and Stephenson, 2002)
      • First Past the Post
        • Not one overview of all candidates so no incentive to field more women. (Lovenduski, Russel and Stephenson, 2002)
        • In systems such as proportional representation, parties are less likely to gain a majority so much appeal to a wide range of voters. (Lovenduski, Russel and Stephenson, 2002)

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