Who actually ran Germany?

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  • Who actually ran Germany?
    • The Kaiser
      • The  constitution gave him extensive power
        • Appoint/dismiss the Chancellor and state secretaries.
        • Dismiss the  Reichstag
      • Close relationships with other sources of power
      • Historian John Rohl
      • Limited grasp of politics and was disinterested
        • often absent from Berlin
        • More interested in ceremonial/social side of being monarch
      • Delusion of power?
      • Limited by the constitution
    • The Elites
      • Junkers
      • Officer corps
      • High ranking professionals
      • Judicary
      • Senior diplomats
      • 'Structuralist'- Hans-Ulrich Wehler
      • The constitution had deliberately allowed Prussians to domimate
      • Sammlungspolotik
      • Exaggerated unity of the elites
      • Declining influence of Junkers
      • Emerging middle class
    • Mass political movements
      • Government responding to popular opinion
  • 'History from below'
  • Geoff Eley and David Blackbourn


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