French wars- Army vs navy plan

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  • Who contributed to victory in the French Wars the most: The British Army or the navy?
    • Colonies
      • Navy
        • Naval battles helped to gain colonies by challenging French naval presence there
          • Reduced number of French tactical bases and trade routes
          • British colonies were safer from invasion because there were fewer French bases and ships
          • Increased exports
            • More money for raw materials, employees, research and development
              • Better army equipment such as gunpowder
        • Invasion of Sicily helped to secure position in the Med sea
      • Army
        • Defended colonies
          • Meant that ports remained open to the British so it was easier to protect merchant ships
          • Allowed imports of materials such as oak to be relatively stable
            • Meant that more ships could be built and the army could have more supplies
      • Navy more impoertant because sea battles determined whether colonies were taken more than army
    • Protection from invasion
      • Navy
        • Prevented a French invasion
          • Secured the centre of operations and allowed the war to continue
          • Secured Britain's industry so war production could be sustained
      • Army
        • Dover Castle was fortified by the army in a crucial strategic position in case of invasion
        • Militia recruited especially after Militia Act 1802, which essentially conscripted men into the militia
          • Many militia joined the main army, and were already pre-trained so were effective in the Peninsular War
      • Ultimately the navy prevented invasion and protective forces on the island provided by the army were limited
    • Role of Wellington
      • Army
        • Defensive tactics allowed minimal casualties given the small force
          • Waterloo- used farmhouses and ridges
            • Ultimately the final blow to Napoleon which ended the wars
          • Salamanca- Used the landscape to hide men and launch a surprise attack
          • Vimeiro- used a hill to trap the French
        • Created a war on two fronts which drained French supplies and split forces
          • Solidified influence in Portugal
            • Defensive tactics allowed minimal casualties given the small force
              • Waterloo- used farmhouses and ridges
                • Ultimately the final blow to Napoleon which ended the wars
              • Salamanca- Used the landscape to hide men and launch a surprise attack
              • Vimeiro- used a hill to trap the French
        • Solidified influence in Portugal
          • Organised the Lines of Torres Vedras in secrecy to weaken the French army
      • Supply
        • Navy
          • Supplies weapons and ammo
            • Allowed success in the Peninsular war
          • Supplied food
            • Kept the army well-fed
              • Reduced the need for foraging
                • Kept the army invulnerable to scorched earth policy
                • Prevented command from falling apart and kept discipline high
              • Decreased disease due to nutrition, so armed forces were stronger
                • Increased morale
            • Ultimately made victory inevitable because British forces could keep going for longer with better supply lines
              • Supplies weapons and ammo
                • Allowed success in the Peninsular war
          • Transported troops to Portugal
      • Economy
        • Navy
          • Blockades
            • Prevention of munitions imports and raw materials for industrial production weakened French army and navy
              • Forced Napoleon to gain loot on campaign to finance the war
                • Failure in war meant a lack of money for supplies to regain territory
            • Prevention of agricultural exports meant less money for research and development and raw materials
              • Forced Napoleon to gain loot on campaign to finance the war
                • Failure in war meant a lack of money for supplies to regain territory
          • Order in Council to search neutral merchant shipping
            • Prevention of munitions imports and raw materials for industrial production weakened French army and navy
            • East India Company
              • Allowed trade with India
                • High import tariffs meant more money
                • Allowed war materials e.g. saltpetre for gunpowder to be obtained
                  • Increased war production so increased chances of success
                    • Gave loans for war production in return for Royal Navy protection of merchant ships
              • Gave loans for war production in return for Royal Navy protection of merchant ships
      • Overall, the navy made a more significant contribution than the army

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