TECTONICS - Hazards developing into disasters

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  • When hazards develop into disasters
    • Hazard risk equation determines the relationship between hazards and disasters.
      • Risk = hazard x vulnerability / capacity to cope
    • hazards are a perceived natural/ geophysical event that has the potential to threaten life and property.
    • Level of development can determine how a place is affected by a hazard. GOVERNANCE is a key concept.
    • Disaster is a realisation of a hazard, when 10 or more people die, or 100 or more people are affected, or US$1 million in economic losses. Can only happen if human life is affected.
    • Capacity to cope (resilience)
      • emergency evacuation, rescue and relief systems in place.
      • React by helping each other.
      • Hazard-resistant design or land-use planning reduces the numbers at risk.
    • 2010 Haiti Port-Au-Prince earthquake (7.0 magnitude) was catastrophic due to:
      • Root causes
        • low access to resources, limited decision making, poor governance and weak economic system. (50% of population is under 20 years of age)
      • Dynamic pressures
        • lack of education, training and investment, and rapid population change and urbanisation. (70% of jobs are in the informal sector).
      • Unsafe conditions
        • Poor construction standards, unsafe infrastructure, poverty and lack of social safety net. (80% of housing is informal, slums).
          • The Pressure And Release model (PAR) - shows Haiti had a high disaster risk.
            • low access to resources, limited decision making, poor governance and weak economic system. (50% of population is under 20 years of age)
            • lack of education, training and investment, and rapid population change and urbanisation. (70% of jobs are in the informal sector).
    • DEGG Disaster Model (can be used in EQ's).

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