RE language analytic, synthetic, V.P (L.P, V.C)

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    • Explain the difference between ANALYTIC and SYNTHETIC.
      • Statements that are ANALYTIC are true by definition. You can check this by ANALYSING the words used.
        • EXAMPLE: 1 + 1 = 2; Every Husband is married; etc.
      • Statements are SYNTHETIC because they can be verified with empirical evidence.
        • EXAMPLE: If I punch you in the nose it will break and become distorted. My teacher has bad breath. etc.
    • Which of the following sentences are ANALYTIC and SYNTHETIC, (or according to L.P's are meaningless.)
      • b) In the last World Cup Scotland had fewer chances to score than the other team.
        • A or S: This statement is Synthetic because it can be verified with empirical evidence that Scotland had fewer chances to score.
        • L.P: This can be weakly verified?
      • d) This circle is round.
        • L.P: This is a scientific and meaningful statement and can be verified with the Strong Verification Principle and the Weak.
        • A or S: This is an Analytic statement because it can be proven in the definition of a circle that it is round.
      • a) I cannot be in Spain and Italy at the same time.
        • A or S: This statement is Analytic because it is impossible to be in two places at once by definition.
        • L.P's: This is meaningful, in both Strong Verification Principle and Weak.
      • c) You'll be late tomorrow.
        • L.P: This can be verified by the weak verification principle because in PRINCIPLE, due to the character and the behaviours of the individual this might be true.
        • A or S: This is a synthetic statment because you need empirical evidence to prove it.
      • e) God is the Creator of the Universe.
        • L.P: This cannot be verified by the Strong Verification Principle; however it can be verified by the Weak Verification Principle.
          • This was seen as a weakness by the L.P's(Vienna Circle) because their aim had been to disprove any metaphysical 'nonesense' that was scientific and meaningful. (God included)
        • A or S: This is a synthetic statement because it needs to have empirical evidence to verify it.
    • Why did memebers of the Vienna Cirlce maintain that ANALYTIC and SYNTHETIC sentences were the only sort of sentences that were meaningful?
      • Both of them can be checked, whether its with empirical evidence or in definition. They can be both verified and falsefied. Thus, they have meaning.
    • Try to think of sentences which you believe are meaningful but which are neither analytic or synthetic. Give reasons for your answer.
      • The words 'Right and Wrong' are not verifiable as analytic or synthetic as they do not represent anthing physical. However, as Wittgenstien says, they have a use, they are a tool to communicate morals.


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