What conditions lead to tropical storms (hurricanes, typhoons or cyclones) and tornadoes and in what ways do they represent a hazard to people? (cont)

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  • Created by: Jake199
  • Created on: 11-05-14 11:47
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  • What conditions lead to tropical storms (hurricanes, typhoons or cyclones) and tornadoes and in what ways do they represent a hazard to people? (cont)
    • Hurricane Mitch, October 1998
      • Central America- Honduras, Nicaragua, El Slavador, Guatemala
      • Social impacts
        • 10000 killed
        • Food shortages
        • 3 million homeless
      • Economic impacts
        • $5 bn
        • Set back economic growth by 20 years
      • Environmental impacts
        • Floods and mudslides destroyed coastal wetlands
      • Short term response- disaster appeal raised $22 bn
      • Long term responses
        • Land conservation, including reforestation
        • World bank made $200 million available
      • Worst hurricane in region for 200 years
      • 290 kph wind, gusts up to 320 kph
      • Orographic  uplifts caused 1000-2000 mm of rain in 3 days
      • Deforestation in area led to increased land and mudslides
    • Short term management of hurricanes
      • Forecast/ detect/ monitor
        • Satellites to predict path
        • Aircraft
        • Buoys to detect wave height and sea surface temp
        • Weather balloons
      • Warnings an evacuation
        • USA Hurricane watch- gives warnings about next 36 hours
        • Hurricane warnings
      • Reduce the impact
        • Sandbags to prevent flooding
        • Board up windows
        • Make valuables safe
    • Long term management of hurricanes
      • Improve resillience
        • Rebuild away from coast
        • Hurricane shelters
      • Improve forecasting
        • Invest in forecasting expertise and technology
        • Set up evacuation plans
      • Soft engineering
        • Land management e.g protect wetlands, reforestation
      • Hard engineering
        • Build levees higher
      • Managed retreat
  • Land conservation, including reforestation

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