What conditions lead to tropical storms (hurricanes, typhoons or cyclones) and tornadoes and in what ways do they represent a hazard to people?

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  • Created by: Jake199
  • Created on: 10-05-14 11:26
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  • What conditions lead to tropical storms (hurricanes, typhoons or cyclones) and tornadoes and in what ways do they represent a hazard to people?
    • Climate controls
      • Latitude
      • Tilt of the Earth
      • Continentality and distance from the sea
      • Ocean curents
      • Local features e.g Urban heat islands
    • Characteristics of  tropical storms
      • Winds swirl around a central eye
      • Areas of intense low pressure
      • Erratic and unpredictable paths
      • Rapid onset
      • Heavy rainfall and high waves
      • Areas of intense wind (greater than 74mph)
      • Can be up to 800 km in diameter
    • Formation of tropical stroms
      • Develop form tropical depressions- small areas of warm rising air
      • Sea temperatures must be over 27 degrees, causing the sea to heat the air above
      • The Coriolis effect bends the rising air to the right in the northern hemisphere, causing a circulation of air
    • Distribution of hurricanes
      • Oceans
      • 5-30 degrees either side of equator
      • East coasts
      • Strongest in Southeast Asia/West pacicifc
    • Hurricane Katrina, August 2005
      • 1400 killed
      • $75bn damage
      • 0.5 million homeless
      • Coastal wetlands destroyed
      • 80% of New Orleans flooded
      • Short term response
        • 350000 evacuated
        • Weather predictions issued by US weather service
        • Superdome set up as refuge
      • Long term responses
        • Water pumped out by US Army Corps of Engineers in 43 days
        • New levee systems designed for cat 5 storms
      • High level of vulnerability
        • 11-12 million people living along coastal areas
        • Pop density twice US average
        • Gradual loss of wetlands due to hard engineering
        • Levee system was built for only cat 3 storm
        • 28% of New Orleans live in pkverty
        • New Orleans built on Mississippi flood plain, 8ft below sea level
      • 4th biggest hurricane to ever make landfall in US (281kph winds and gusts to 340kph).  8-9m storm surge
  • Characteristics of  tropical storms
    • Winds swirl around a central eye
    • Areas of intense low pressure
    • Erratic and unpredictable paths
    • Rapid onset
    • Heavy rainfall and high waves
    • Areas of intense wind (greater than 74mph)
    • Can be up to 800 km in diameter

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