What is social inequality and how can it be measured?

  • Created by: EmilyM17
  • Created on: 26-05-19 16:08
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  • The distribution of resources, wealth and opportunities are not evenly spread within and between places
    • What is social inequality?
      • Quality of Life
        • the extent to which people's needs and desires are met. Equal dignity and rights? Reasonable access to healthcare and education?
        • Factors determining quality of life and standard of living.
          • Income
            • Higher incomes= greater choice of housing education and diet.
              • However, longer hours of work and migration away from family and friends can lead to a higher income and standard of living but low quality of life
          • Wealth
            • However, longer hours of work and migration away from family and friends can lead to a higher income and standard of living but low quality of life
          • Standard of Living
            • the ability to access services and goods this includes basics such as food and water, clothes, housing and personal mobility
          • Social
            • Incidence of crime
            • % on free school meals
            • Access to health facilities
          • Physical
            • Quality of houseing
            • Incidence of litter
            • Graffiti
          • Economic
            • Wealth
              • Income
                • Higher incomes= greater choice of housing education and diet.
                • Access to employment
              • Political
                • Opportunities to participate in community life and influence decisions
          • Standard of Living
            • the ability to access services and goods this includes basics such as food and water, clothes, housing and personal mobility
        • Deprivation
          • Quality of life and standard of living are low. Deprivation is more than just poverty- refers to a general lack of resources and opportunities
            • Cycle of deprivation
              • POVERTY- low wages or unemployment
                • POOR LIVING CONDITIONS- poor accommodation, overcrowding, run-down area
                  • ILL-HEALTH- stress and strain
                    • POOR EDUCATION- old schools
                      • POOR SKILLS- poor occupational skills
                • POOR SKILLS- poor occupational skills
          • Index of multiple deprivation
            • used to access relative levels of deprivation
        • Measuring social inequality
          • Income
            • Absolute poverty= US$1.25/day PPP, below this level a person cannot afford to purchase the minimum amount of food and essentials
            • Relative poverty= relates the level of poverty to the distribution of income across the whole population
            • Gini-coefficient= a technique that can be used to measure levels of income inequality within countries. Value of 1.0= all income in a country was in the hands of one person. value of 0= everyone has equal income
          • Housing
            • Being able to afford adequate housing
            • Housing tenure- owner-occupiers own their house outright in ACs this is achieved through a mortgage.
          • Education
            • Acquisition of skills can be underestimated if only formal qualifications are measured.
            • Literacy levels give an indication of inequality in education
          • Healthcare
            • Association between poverty and ill health is very strong
            • Number of doctors per 1000 people
            • Access to clean water, sanitation, quality and quantity of diet, type of housing and air quality have a significant influence on health
            • Social behaviour and lifestyle- attitudes towards vaccinations and alcohol
          • Employment
            • Whether a household has someone who is in receipt of a regular income has an effect on standard of life and quality of living
            • Sometimes measuring unemployment is complicated, in LICS and EDCs people work in the informal sector of the economy

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