Were the Peace Treaties of 1919-23 Fair?

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  • Were the Peace Treaties of 1919-23 Fair?
    • What Were the Motives and Aims of the Big Three at Versailles?
      • Georges Clemenceau - France
        • Wanted Germany crippled and severely punished
      • David Lloyd-George - UK
        • Wanted to see Germany justly punished, but not completely crippled
      • Woodrow Wilson - USA
        • Wanted a just and lasting peace, with good trade
          • The Fourteen Points
            • 'Self-Determination'
            • Free Trade
            • League of Nations to be set up
    • Why Did the Victors Not Get Everything They Wanted?
      • The Treaty of Versailles
        • Clauses
          • 1. War Guilt
            • Germany had to accept complete responsibility for WWI
          • 2. Reparations
            • Germany wouldn't have paid off initial figure of £6.6 billion until 1984
          • 3. German Territories and Colonies
            • North Schleswig to Denmark after plebiscite
            • Alsace-Lorraine  to France
            • 'Polish Corridor' created and Upper Silesia to Poland
            • Saarland run by League of Nations, then plebiscite after 15 years
            • Overseas empire taken away and handed over to the League of Nations
          • 4. Germany's Armed Forces
            • Army limited to 100,000 men
            • Conscription banned
            • No armoured vehicles, submarines, or aircraft
            • Navy limited to 6 battleships
            • Rhineland demilitarised
          • 5. League of Nations
            • Germany not invited
    • What Were the Immediate Reactions to the Peace Settlement?
      • Germany Hated the Treaty
        • Couldn't afford reparations
        • Lost industrial areas and could not rebuild
        • Lost pride without armed forces
        • Saw other countries weren't disarming
        • Didn't accept defeat
        • Peoples now often lived under foreign rule in new countries
        • Lost colonies
        • Suffered an economic crisis
        • Didn't accept guilt
    • Other Peace Treaties
      • TTO St. Germain - 1919
        • Dealt with Austria
      • TTO Neuilly - 1919
        • Dealt with Bulgaria
      • TTO Trianon - 1920
        • Dealt with Hungary
      • TTO Sevres  - 1920
        • Dealt with Turkey
    • Could the Treaties be Justified at the Time?
      • Unfair?
        • Germany was left weak and resentful - this could lead to anger
        • The Treaty wouldn't help Europe rebuild trade and wealth
        • The peacemakers faced pressure from home
      • Issues
        • Europe couldn't recover with Germany so poor
        • Self-Determination within newly formed countries
        • German anger would lead to future trouble
        • Without major powers in the League, it would be hard to exorcise power
  • Overseas empire taken away and handed over to the League of Nations

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