Golden Years - Germany 1924-29

Mind map for Unit 5 the Golden (Stresemann) years of the Weimar Republic. Looking at society, economy culture and politics

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  • Were the mid-late1920s the Golden Years in Germany?
    • Political Stability?
      • May 1924 Election
        • Swing to the right - DNVP = 19.5% and Nazis = 6.5%
        • SPD loose support - only 20.5%
      • December 1924 Election
        • SPD slight revival - upto 26%
        • DNVP stay at around 20% and Nazis drop to only 3%
      • SPD obstructed governments being excluded and   were infighting over  whether they should work with Bourgosie Parties
      • Grand Coalition 1928 was a broad base of Socialists, Centre, DVP and DDP
        • June 1928 Election
          • SPD win 30% and DNVP drop to 14%
          • Polarisation becoming a major issue to form stable governments
        • Collapse - Unemployment up to 3 million by 1928 - couldn't pay for Unemployment insurance
          • SPD wanted higher employer contributions
          • DVP wanted a benefit cut
      • Election of President Hindenburg - 1925
        • Was anti-Republican and favoured Right Wing parties
          • Forced inclusion of DNVP in governments - caused instability
        • Made it clear his hatred of SPD
        • Restricted reform to Presidential Powers (Article 48)
      • Political violence of the early 1920s had ended
      • 3 or 4 Party Coalitions stopped formation of any stable governments
      • June 1928 Election
        • SPD win 30% and DNVP drop to 14%
        • Polarisation becoming a major issue to form stable governments
    • Economic Recovery
      • 1923 - Stresemann set up a new currency (Rentenmark) and balanced books, sacking 700,000 workers
        • This laid the foundation for the Dawes Plan
      • 25.5 billion mark investment from USA in German industry
      • Relative stagnated  growth
      • Unemployment high - 3 million in 1928
      • Low Interest meant business could upgrade machinery (needed smaller workforce)
        • Unemployment high - 3 million in 1928
      • National income 12% higher in 1928 than 1913
      • Exports up 50%
      • Rural poverty due to food price collapse in 1922
      • Poor industrial relations - wages kept high
        • Arbitration cases and Employer/Union tensions represent political divisions
    • Society
      • Arbitration cases and Employer/Union tensions represent political divisions
      • Wlefare enshrined in constitution
      • Unemployment insurance set up in 1927
      • 33 times more spending on housing - 300,000 built 1927-30
      • Issues over second workers form Women
        • Number of female white collar workers doubled by 1925
        • Doppeldervieners able to be sacked from civil service 1932 +
    • Culture
      • Neue Sachlichkiet
        • Bauhaus Movement, combining technology with art
        • Speaking out against republic
        • Serialism
      • Traditional Culture
        • Escapism, glorifying WW1
        • Grimm Fairy Tales sales doubled
        • Mainly anti-republican
      • Division represent society at the time
      • Liberal and sleezey culture of Berlin doesn't show stability - most opposed this
    • Foreign Policy
      • Dawes Plan
        • Reparations only 1 Billion marks a year until 1929 when 2.5
        • USA loans to help cover payments
        • Investment into German Industry
          • 25.5 billion mark investment from USA in German industry
        • France to withdraw from the Ruhr
      • Young Plan
        • Revision to payments, avoiding higher payments
        • 1700 million marks for 3 years then 2 million for 56 years
        • Total liability reduced to £1.8 billion
        • French to leave Rhineland early
        • Freedom Laws
          • Anti Republicans opposed length of German liability and acceptance of War guilt
          • Wanted removal of war guilt clause - called a referendum
            • Only 14% supported the,m, but this was still around 6 million opponents
          • Political Stability?
            • May 1924 Election
              • Swing to the right - DNVP = 19.5% and Nazis = 6.5%
              • SPD loose support - only 20.5%
            • December 1924 Election
              • SPD slight revival - upto 26%
              • DNVP stay at around 20% and Nazis drop to only 3%
            • SPD obstructed governments being excluded and   were infighting over  whether they should work with Bourgosie Parties
            • Grand Coalition 1928 was a broad base of Socialists, Centre, DVP and DDP
              • Collapse - Unemployment up to 3 million by 1928 - couldn't pay for Unemployment insurance
                • SPD wanted higher employer contributions
                • DVP wanted a benefit cut
            • Election of President Hindenburg - 1925
              • Was anti-Republican and favoured Right Wing parties
                • Forced inclusion of DNVP in governments - caused instability
              • Made it clear his hatred of SPD
              • Restricted reform to Presidential Powers (Article 48)
            • Political violence of the early 1920s had ended
            • 3 or 4 Party Coalitions stopped formation of any stable governments
      • Locarno Treaties
        • Secured  Germany's western borders
        • Insured France would not annex the Ruhr or Rhineland
        • Signaled better trust from the Allies
        • Relied on support from SPD because DNVP refused to support them
      • League of Nations
        • Germany made permant members of League - improved French relations but people disliked fulfillment of Versaille

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