Weimar Republic - GCSE GERMANY

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  • Created on: 08-06-13 16:11
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  • Weimar Republic.
    • The 4 Weaknesses of the Weimar Republic
      • The "Stab in the Back" myth
        • What was this? The Weimar surrendered in November 1918, ending WW1. - Surprised Germans since they did not know they were losing the war.
        • Impact: Germans blamed Weimar government for surrendering.
          • Thought the army could have won the war.
      • The Versailles Treaty.
        • Land.
          • Germany Lost Alsace-Lorraine to France and West Prussia was given to Poland
            • Germans felt angry that they lost some of their best agricultural/industrial land
        • Army
          • Germany Banned from having air forces or submarines
          • Army cut to 100,000 men
          • Was banned from putting soldiers into rhineland
          • They felt humiliated because they could not defend themselves.
        • Money
          • Had to pay £6,000 million reperations
            • Germans were angry because their economy was ruined from war, so they could not pay
        • Blame
          • Article 231 said that Germany was to blame for causing war.
            • Germans Believed the war had been fought in self defence
      • The Constitution.
        • Voting System
          • New Parliament was elected using a system called proportional representation
            • Encouraged small parties which got small number's of MP's
        • Coalitions
          • Because of  no political party had enough MP's, two or more parties had to form a coalition
            • These coalitions were unstable and broke down due to diverging opinions
        • Chancellor
          • To become Chancellor required half of the support from  Reichstag members
          • Very hard to achieve, no political party had enough MP's
        • Article 48
          • In emergency, this rule gave power to president, to suspend democracy.
            • Making law without consulting Reichstag
      • Extremist Groups.
        • Spartacist Rising 1919
          • Communist group.
          • Took Over Weimar government's newspaper headquarters.
          • Crushed by using army with the help of Freikorps ( Ex soldiers)
        • The Kapp putsch 1920
          • Freikorps led by Wolfgang Kapp tried to seize power
          • Government asked workers to go on strike, making it impossible for Kapp to rule
        • Munich Putsch 1923
          • Nazi's tried to seize power in Munich
          • The Weimar Government crushed them using the army
    • Crisis 1.
      • What Caused Economic Problems?
        • Germany suffered hyperinflation in 1923. Therefore when price of goods go up quickly, money loses its value.
        • Reperations: Germany fell behind on the payment
        • Ruhr invasion: France and Belgium invaded Ruhr to take coal as payment
        • Resistance: Germans in Ruhr refused to work for the French so Coal production stopped:Germany became poorer.
        • Government started printing more money. Money lost value. Prices soared - HYPERINFLATION
      • What were the effects of Hyperinflation?
        • Rich- They avoided Hyperinflation since they still had land which kept its value
        • Old people - Pensions became worse
        • Debt - Money lost value,debts also became worthless
        • Savings: Middle class people with savings suffered worse since the savings became worthless
      • Stresemann PARTLY solved crisis by:
        • Dawes plan: Took a huge loan from USA in 1924 to build up industry
          • However. Left Germany dangerously dependant on US loans
        • Reichsmark: Got rid of the worthless money and introduced New currency
        • Income: Income remained very low and unemployment stayed high
        • Passive Resistance - called it off so Ruhr became to produce weatlh again
    • Crisis : The Munich Putsch 1923
      • What Happened During the Munich Putsch?
        • Stresemann called off Passive Resistance - Nazi's saw this as giving in to the French.
          • Therefore tried overthrowing the Weimar Government in an armed Uprising ( A Putsch)
        • Hitler addressed businessmen in the Munich Beer Hall.
        • Ludendorff, an army war hero joined hitler. Hitler hoped this would make the army support his putsch
        • Von Kahr,  leader of Bavarian goverment was forced at gunpoint to support Putsch
          • Later went back on his word and told government about HITLER'S plans.
        • Hitler and Nazis marched through centre of munich the following day
          • Under instructions the army fired at the Nazis. Several were injured and the Putsch failed
      • This PARTLY solved the problem
        • Hitler was injured and the leaders of the Putsch were jailed
        • Hitler gained fame and publicity at trial and won the support of judges and the public
        • Hitlers time in jail was Comfortable where he wrote his best-selling book of his idea's - "Mein Kampf"
        • Failure of Putsch made Hitler change tactics, from trying to seize power to winning power in elections
        • Injuries suffered by Nazi's could be used as Propaganda, representing their will to die for their country

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